Week 5 - Group membership

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  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 18-02-16 14:00
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  • Week 5 - Group membership
    • Intergroup relations
      • Sherif's definition on revision sheet
        • Realistic conflict approach - RTC
          • The nature of relationships between groups depends on the compatibility of their goals
            • Conflict = competition over resources or goals - only one can achieve
            • Harmony = Cooperation in pursuit of a common superordinate goal
          • Summer camp study
            • First study in Connecticut, 1949
              • 11-12 y/o white boys
                • Test of conflict between groups is caused by competition over resources or goals that only one can achieve
                  • Three stages of research
                    • No intervention
                      • Group formation
                        • Intergroup competition
                    • Findings
                      • Rise in hostility due to compeition
      • In group - the group we belong to
      • Outgroups - the other groups
    • Robbers Cave Study - 1954
      • Group formation
        • Competition
          • Boys overestimate ingroup performace compared to out group
            • Group serving attributes
              • win = fast runners, lose = out group are cheats
          • Conflict resolution
            • The idea that social hostility can be lessesned by increasing positive interpersonal contact between group members = no effect
            • Establish Subordinate goals
              • A goal with appeal for members of each group that neither group can achieve without the other
                • Results in cooperation and less intergroup hostility
              • At the end of camp, both groups requested that they go home together on the same bus
    • Taifel's SIT of intergroup relations
      • Minimal group experiments
        • Designed to construct groups that exist in name and imagination only
          • Group member have no relational affiliation
            • Boys from Bristol Grammar School
              • Mere categorization effect
                • Even when we don't know the other group and have nothing to gain simply being a member of a group leads to
                  • In group favouratism
                    • Adoption of competitive orientation to outgroups
                • Social Identity theory is an explanation for this
                  • Knowing they belong to a group due to emotional and value significance
      • Motive for positive distinctiveness
        • View group we identigy with as both different and better than outgroups
          • Social group based identity = situationally flexible
            • Different aspects of our identity become salient or relevant in different situations
              • Sailient when we regulate our behaviour according to the norms associated with the group
    • The dark sides to social identity
      • Negative stereotyping and discrimination
        • The need to establish positive distinctiveness = social conflict
          • View group we identigy with as both different and better than outgroups
            • Social group based identity = situationally flexible
              • Different aspects of our identity become salient or relevant in different situations
                • Sailient when we regulate our behaviour according to the norms associated with the group
          • Reicher and Haslam
            • 5 step process that leads to the development of COLLECTIVE HATE
              • 1. Group identification
                • 2. Differentiation from an other
                  • 3. Threat
                    • 4. Identify the ingroup virtue
                      • 5. Celebration of hostility
                      • Ingroup = positive virtue
                        • Outgroup = oppposite
                    • Outgroup = threat
                  • Ingroup solidarity and community
                    • Exclude outgroup
                • Collective realization
                  • Only our true selves when part of the group
    • Positive aspects of social identity
      • sense of belonging
        • Exhilarating and empowering
          • Promotes collective resistance to stigmatization and discrimination
      • Promotes collective resillience in situations of extreme adversity
    • Social creativity
      • Situation in which members of low status groups act collectively to challenge derogatory stereotypes

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