Week 2 - The childhood development of the self concept

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  • Week 2 - Childhood development of self-concept
    • Self-awareness
      • Bodily self-awareness
        • Distinction between your own body and other aspects of the enviroment
        • The Mirror Test
          • Assesses a child's ability to recognize herself in a mirror
            • Was originally developed for examining self-awareness in primates
          • Adult places dot on child's nose or forehead
            • Child is then placed in front of a mirror and their reactions are monitored
          • Findings
            • 18 mnths: 25% of children recognize the reflection as their own body
              • 20-24mths: 50% show evidence of bodily self-recognition
                • 30mths:Most pass the mark test
      • Social self-awareness
        • Self-other distinction
          • Enables effective interaction with others
            • Neccessary for self-regulation
              • Adopting socially appropriate behaviour and attitude
        • Two primary indicators
          • Correct use of personal pronouns (I, ME, YOU, MINE)
            • The emergence of self-conscious emotional responses
              • Understanding how we may appear to others - pride, shame, guilt
                • Evident by 15-24mnths
      • Introspective self-awareness
        • Awareness of one's own mental states, beliefs, feelings and desires
          • Requires ability to recognize and describe internal experiences rather than external appearances
            • Also requires social self-awarensss
        • THEORY OF MIND
          • An understanding that my experiences are mine and that other people may see things differently
          • Assessed using a false belief task
            • Young children assume that other people see and feel the same as them = EGOCENTRISM
    • Self-description - Susan Harter
      • 2-4 - Describe themselves in concrete terms
        • Unrealistically positive about themselves
          • Try to impress audience - impression management
        • Self descriptions are disparate
        • Age 5-7: Grouping aspects of the self
          • Self-descriptions rely on personal experiences
            • Private vs purely public self
          • Age 8-10: Emergence of social aspects of the social concept
            • Focus on internal psychological traits and emotions
              • Able to distinguish real and ideal self
    • Self-regulation
      • The ability to over-ride impulses in order to engage in intentional behaviour
        • Marshmallow test
      • Bodily self-regulation
        • Learned through observation and modelling
      • Socio-emotional self-regulation
        • Ability to suppress emotions // delay gratification
      • Cognitive self-regulation
        • Ability to pay attention and hold information in mind
    • Self concept in atypical developing children
      • Down Syndrome
        • Varying levels of cognitive impairment
          • Difficulty with fine motor coordination
            • Difficulty with language
          • Pass the mark test when they reach the mental age of 18 mnths
      • Autistic spectrum disorder
        • Difficulties with social interaction
          • Delayed language development
            • Extreme egocentrism
        • Pass the mark test at the same time as TD children
          • Has difficulty with personal pronouns
            • Does not interact with own self-image
      • Milwood et al (2000)
        • Trip to countryside
          • Paired children with ASD and TD
            • Researcher asked children what had happened and who had experienced it
        • Findings
          • TD: Accurately remembered who did what
            • Remembered more of the activities in which they had personally been involved in
            • ASD
              • less accurately remembered who had done what
                • Remembered more of that their partner had been involved in than they had been involved in
      • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
        • Developmental disorder
          • Problems with bodily, social and cognitive self-regulation
        • Symptoms must be observed for more than 6 months
          • Must cause problems in child's social, academic and work life
        • Untitled

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