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  • Weathering
    • Mechanical
      • Wet/Dry
        • rocks are prone to expansion and contraction (in coastal splash zone) causing them to become wet and then dry out
        • inter-tidal wet and dry can also cause this
      • Granular Disintegration
        • repeated heating and cooling of rocks due to temperature changes
        • some minerals respond more to saltwater
      • Freeze-thaw
        • Water enters cracks in rocks, freezes and expands exerting excess pressure and causing fragments to break off.
        • less common as sea keeps coasts mild
      • roots, coastal birds burrowing in cliffs
      • Salt crystal growth
        • ions are added onto the lattice structure
        • common as sea has high salt content
    • Chemical
      • Solution
        • Some rocks dissolve in water
      • Carbonation
        • Lime-rich rocks dissolve in carbonic acid
      • Acids
        • acid rain from pollution
      • Oxidation
        • rusting of rocks due to reactions with oxygen
        • speeds up in moist air
      • Hydrolysis
      • Hydration
      • organic acids from plants, bird droppings etc.
    • Biological
      • by plants and animals


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