Weaknesses of Multi-Store Model

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  • Created on: 21-01-14 18:35
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  • Weaknesses of MSM
    • Structures: STM and LTM are not unitary stores
      • Evidence: STM not being unitary store from case study KF. Brain damaged resulted in difficulty dealing with verbal info in STM. But normal ability to process visual info.
      • MSM describes LTM as single store. Where as evidence from patients with amnesia indicates that there are different kind of long term memory
        • Schachter et al (2000) suggested there are 4 LTM stores
          • 1. Semantic Memory
          • 2. Episodic Memory
          • 3. Procedural Memory
          • 4. Perceptual representation
        • Spiers et al (2001) studied memory in 147 patients with amnesia. Their procedural representation systems were intact but the other two systems were not
    • Process: Rehearsal vs processing
      • Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed a different kind of model to explain lasting memories.
        • Suggested that enduring memories are created by the processing that you do, rather through maintenance rehearsal
      • Craig and Tulving (1975) Gave participants a list of nouns and asked a question about each word. These being:
        • 1. Shallow Processing e.g 'Is the word printed in capital letters?'
          • Participants remembered most words from condition 3 and least from condition 1. Suggesting processing leads to enhanced memory. Replaces maintenance rehearsal with elaborative rehearsal
        • 2. Phonemic Processing e.g 'Does the word rhyme with train?'
          • Participants remembered most words from condition 3 and least from condition 1. Suggesting processing leads to enhanced memory. Replaces maintenance rehearsal with elaborative rehearsal
        • 3. Semantic Processing eg 'Is the word a type of fruit.
        • Glenberg et all (1977) showed that maintenance rehearsal does have some effect on creating enduring memories but not as much as elaborative rehearsal
      • How separate are STM and LTM
        • MSM suggests that STM involved before LTM. Logie (1999) pointed out that STM actually relies on LTM, cannot come first as suggested in MSM
          • Ruchkin et al (2003) demonstrated this by asking participants to recall a set of words and pseudo words. Brain activity was monitored and found two large differences
            • More activity when real words were processed, indicates the involvements of other areas of the brain
              • Concluded that STM is actually just the part of LTM which is activated at any given time
            • Pseudo words involved short-term memory then activity should have been the same for both conditions.
              • Concluded that STM is actually just the part of LTM which is activated at any given time
        • MSM STM was a place to hold information as it is being moved to LTM, whereas the concept of working memory is that it is an end in itself a place where information is held until it is put to use

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