Waves

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  • Polarsing waves
    • Can only happen to to transverse waves
      • Polarised waves only travel in one direction
        • For example, a rope moving vertically can only go through a vertical fence
        • A polarising filter only transmits the vibrations in one direction
          • If 2 polarising filters are placed perpendicular to eachother, then no light/waves will pass through
            • Light reflecting
              • Rotating a polarising filter in a beam of light shows the fraction of light that is vibrating in each direction
                • When light reflects, it is partially polarised
                • if you direct a beam of unpolarised light at a reflective surface then view the reflected ray through a polarising filter, the intensity of light changes with the orientation of the filter
                  • the intensity changes because the light is partially polarised when it is reflected
                    • this effect is used to remove unwanted reflections in photography and in polarised sunglasses to remove glare
            • different materials can rotate the plane of polarisation
              • Crystals rotate the plane of polarised light
                • rotating the plane of polarisation affects the intensity
                  • this is Malus's law which states that the intensity of the transmitted light is proportional to the amplitude squared  I ∞ cos2θ

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