WAVES

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• WAVES
• Progressive
• Carries energy from 1 point to the other
• Doesn't Transfer any material
• Transfers energy away from source
• Doesnt need a medium to travel in
• Components
• Amplitude
• Wavelength
• Velocity= Wavlength / Time period
• Trough and Crests
• Frequency
• Inverse of the Time period
• Frequency = 1oscillation / Time period
• Velocity = Frequency x Wavelength
• Velocity= Wavlength / Time period
• Longituidinal
• Oscillations are parallel  to the direction of travel
• Sound waves
• Transverse
• Oscillations are at rightangles  to the direction of travel
• Electromagnetic waves
• Reflection
• Wave Bounces back when it hits a bounday
• Standing/ Stationary Waves
• Waves Reflected
• Nodes
• Points on the wave where there is no displacement /Amplitude
• Anti-Nodes
• Points on the wave where there is maximum displacement / amplitude
• Doesn't Transfer  energy
• Fundamental Frequency (f0)
• The lowest resonant  frequency
• f0 in stringsis l = wavelength / 2
• f0 in closed pipes is l= Wavelength / 4
• f0 in  open pipes is l= Wavelength / 2
• Progressive
• Carries energy from 1 point to the other
• Doesn't Transfer any material
• Transfers energy away from source
• Doesnt need a medium to travel in
• Waves Reflected
• Refraction
• Waves change speed and direction when they enter a new medium
• Refractive Index
• How much a material slows down light
• The more optically dense a medium, the more light slows down in it
• Light slows down due to interaction with the particles
• Absolute Refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light in vacum and it's speed in the medium
• u = c / v
• Relative refractive index is the ration of speed of light in mediumto medium 2
• 1u2 = v1 / v2
• 1u2 =  sin1 / sin2
• Snells Law
• Using angles to calculate the refractive index
• u1 sin i = u2 sin r
• Internal Reflection
• i > c (total internal reflection)
• i = c (light is refracted 90 degrees from normal)
• i < c (light passes through the glass and refracts)
• At c (critical angle)
• Snells law states ( u glass sin i = u air sin r)
• u air sin 90 = 1
• u glass sin i = 1
• u glass = 1 / sin i
• THEREFORE ( u1 = 1 / sin c)
• Sin i = Sin C (which is the critical angle
• Sin i = Sin C (which is the critical angle
• u glass sin i = 1
• u glass = 1 / sin i
• THEREFORE ( u1 = 1 / sin c)
• u air sin 90 = 1
• At c (critical angle)
• Snells law states ( u glass sin i = u air sin r)

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