WAVES

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  • WAVES
    • Progressive
      • Carries energy from 1 point to the other
      • Doesn't Transfer any material
      • Transfers energy away from source
      • Doesnt need a medium to travel in
    • Components
      • Amplitude
      • Wavelength
        • Velocity= Wavlength / Time period
      • Trough and Crests
      • Frequency
        • Inverse of the Time period
          • Frequency = 1oscillation / Time period
        • Velocity = Frequency x Wavelength
          • Velocity= Wavlength / Time period
    • Longituidinal
      • Oscillations are parallel  to the direction of travel
      • Sound waves
    • Transverse
      • Oscillations are at rightangles  to the direction of travel
      • Electromagnetic waves
    • Reflection
      • Wave Bounces back when it hits a bounday
        • Standing/ Stationary Waves
          • Waves Reflected
          • Nodes
            • Points on the wave where there is no displacement /Amplitude
          • Anti-Nodes
            • Points on the wave where there is maximum displacement / amplitude
          • Doesn't Transfer  energy
          • Fundamental Frequency (f0)
            • The lowest resonant  frequency
            • f0 in stringsis l = wavelength / 2
            • f0 in closed pipes is l= Wavelength / 4
            • f0 in  open pipes is l= Wavelength / 2
          • Progressive
            • Carries energy from 1 point to the other
            • Doesn't Transfer any material
            • Transfers energy away from source
            • Doesnt need a medium to travel in
        • Waves Reflected
    • Refraction
      • Waves change speed and direction when they enter a new medium
        • Refractive Index
          • How much a material slows down light
            • The more optically dense a medium, the more light slows down in it
              • Light slows down due to interaction with the particles
          • Absolute Refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light in vacum and it's speed in the medium
            • u = c / v
          • Relative refractive index is the ration of speed of light in mediumto medium 2
            • 1u2 = v1 / v2
              • 1u2 =  sin1 / sin2
          • Snells Law
            • Using angles to calculate the refractive index
            • u1 sin i = u2 sin r
            • Internal Reflection
              • i > c (total internal reflection)
                • i = c (light is refracted 90 degrees from normal)
                  • i < c (light passes through the glass and refracts)
                  • At c (critical angle)
                    • Snells law states ( u glass sin i = u air sin r)
                      • u air sin 90 = 1
                        • u glass sin i = 1
                          • u glass = 1 / sin i
                            • THEREFORE ( u1 = 1 / sin c)
                              • Sin i = Sin C (which is the critical angle
                            • Sin i = Sin C (which is the critical angle
                      • u glass sin i = 1
                        • u glass = 1 / sin i
                          • THEREFORE ( u1 = 1 / sin c)
                    • u air sin 90 = 1
                  • At c (critical angle)
                    • Snells law states ( u glass sin i = u air sin r)

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