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  • Waves
    • Electro-magnetic Spectrum
      • Radio-waves: television signals
      • Microwaves: cooking
      • Infrared: heat sensitive cameras
      • Visible: seeing
      • Ultraviolet: UV lamps
      • X-ray: images of bones
      • Gamma Rays: kills cancer cells
    • Transverse & Longitudinal Waves
      • Transverse: oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer
      • Longitudinal: oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer
    • Definitions
      • Wavelength: the distance between two crests - high points
      • Frequency: the num. of waves that pass a fixed place in a given amount of time
      • Time Period:  the time taken for one cycle of vibration to pass fixed point
      • Amplitude:  the height of the wave from the resting position.
    • Refraction
      • When a wave changes speed & sometimes direction upon entering a dense medium
      • e.g. a light ray changes direction when refracted by a lens.
    • Changes in atoms produce electromagnetic waves of various frequencies
      • changes in the nuclei of atoms produce radiation
    • waves all travel at the same speed - 300 million m/s in space


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