Topic 4 Wave - Overview!

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  • 8. Nature of waves
    • 8.1 Mechanical Oscillation
      • Requires a medium!
      • Longitudinal waves
        • Particle oscillate parallel to wave motion
        • e.g. Sound
        • Compression
        • Rarefactions
      • Mechanical waves
        • Particle oscillate perpendicular to wave motion
      • displacement-distance graph and Displacement-time graph
        • Phases
          • Out of phase
          • Antiphase
            • Phase difference of 180°
          • Phase difference
        • Wave form
        • Wave profile
        • Sinusoidal
        • Distance between two Adjacent positions that are in phase is the wavelength of the wave
    • 8.2 Electro-magnetic waves
      • Created From accelerating Charged particles
        • Also created from Quantum jumps by an electron in an atom or excited nuclei
          • Electro-magnetic waves produced by the latter are Photons
      • Requires no Medium!
      • A varying Electric field cannot exist without a magnetic field
    • 8.3 Wave Equations
      • V=?/T
      • f=1/T
      • Wave Equation
        • V=?f
  • When a wave is incident on an interface between two different media the energy may be absorbed, transmitted or reflected
  • x=vt/2
    • Calculating distance using sound
  • Example of constructive & destructive
    • Two in phase waves producing maximum amplitude (A+A=2A)
  • Two anti-phase wave producing zero amplitude
    • Destructive superposition
    • Example of constructive & destructive
      • Two in phase waves producing maximum amplitude (A+A=2A)
  • S2P1-S1P1=n?
    • n=the order of the maximum from centre (e.g 1st or 2nd maximum)
  • Basic
    • Constructive superposition
      • Destructive superposition
      • 10. Superposition of wave
        • 10.2 standing waves
          • Produced by superposition of two progressive waves of equal frequency and amplitude moving in opposite directions
          • nodes
            • Zero amplitude
          • Antinodes
            • Max amplitude
          • Diff. between progressive waves (PW) and standing waves (SW)
            • SW store energy, PW transfer energy from point to point
            • Amplitude of SW vary from 0 to Max, PW have constant amplitude
            • SW oscillations are in all in phase between nodes, PW phases vary continuously
          • Standing waves on string
            • Melde's exp.
            • Sonometer
            • harmonics
            • Overtones
            • Fundamental frequency
              • Standing wave with 2 nodes and 1 antinodes
            • String instruments
              • Differentiate between instruments, by quality/timber of notes
              • Difference is that wind can be either a node or antinode at wave boundaries
                • Standing waves on wind instr.
                  • ???
        • Electron Diffraction
          • ?= h/mv
            • h= planck's constant= 6.6x10-34
    • Standing waves on wind instr.
      • ???
    • Close end(s) = node
      • Open end(s) = antinodes

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