GEOGRAPHY water world

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  • Water world
    • Hydrological cycle
      • Movement of water through the hydrosphere
      • water enters the atmosphere through evapo- transpiration
        • Water particles released from plants or water storages eg oceans
      • precipitation- atmosphere to biosphere then either absorbed by vegitation, flows as surface run-off or infiltrates.
      • infiltrates from surface into soil
      • moves through soil as throughflow or percolates into hard rock underneath
        • it is either stored in groundwater storage or flows as groundwater flow
    • Unreliable supplies
      • SAHEL (Africa) - developing
        • short wet season- high run off, little stored
        • Weather cycles- several draught years lead to food shortages and famine
      • SOUTH WEST USA- developed
        • arid area, Colorado river is main supply
          • irrigation and water for homes and growing cities (las vegas)
          • Climate change and growing populations mean river is drying out
    • THREATS to the hydrological cycle
      • Humans- waste, chemical factories plant fertilisers (irrigation)
    • Water management
      • Large scale (DAMS)
        • Colorado river- developed
          • Series of dams and canals
            • Advantages- regulates water supply (less draught and flood), supplies to growing cities, HEP is generated.
            • Costs- loss of land, sediment behind dams = HEP efficiency drops, COSTS a lot, less water down stream and wildlife interupted
        • Three gorges dam, China- developing
          • worlds largest dam
            • Advantages- regulates supply, irrigates the land, HEP to cities, easier to navigate and fish
            • Costs- loss of farmland, historical sites, villages lost and homes destroyed, land is weaker (landslides), COSTS a lot, sediment behind dam means HEP less efficient, locals cat afford the HEP
      • Small scale/ intermediate- more sustainable
        • NGO's  work with locals
        • wells- dug to reach underground supplies- can be contaminated
        • Hand pump- uses pressure to bring up water from underground stores
        • Rain barrels- guttering on houses feed rainwater into a barrel to be used at a later date

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