Water World

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  • Water world
    • Water on the Planet
      • Stores of water
        • glaciers and snow cover
        • oceans
        • groundwater
        • lakes and rivers
      • water in closed system
        • system known as hydrological cycle
    • Workings of the hydrological cycle
      • EVAPORATION  transfer water liquid  to water vapour
      • TRANSPIRATION  EVAPOTRANSPIRATION  liquid evaporated from plants
      • CONDENSATION  water vapour becomes liquid water
      • PRECIPITATION  rain snow
      • SURFACE RUNOFF GROUNDWATER FLOW precipitation hit ground soak move downhill underwater flow
      • STREAMFLOW  groundwater flow surface run off gather at river
    • The impact of climate change on vulnerable regions
      • bring more rain
      • temperature change
      • hydrological cycle will be altered
      • ares most likely experience increasing water stress red ares across North Africa Middle Ease central Asia
        • Factors that lead to more stress
          • decreasing rainfall
          • less reliable rainfall
          • increasing temperatures
          • increasing population
          • increasing industrialisation
    • The impact of   unreliable   and/or insufficient water supply
      • shortages unexpected
      • long-term changes both demand supply
      • reasons for risk of water shortages
        • rising demand cos changing land use
        • rising demand cos population increase
        • falling supply cos short-term changes in climate
        • falling supply because of long-term changes in climate
    • Quality not quantity
      • Africa worst % ppl cannot access fresh water
      • water pollution in developing world due sewage
      • water also polluted by industry
        • Toxic waste from mines
          • Heap-leach mining uses sodium cyanide
        • Plant fertilisers
          • nitrates run off into rivers and lakes
        • Chemical waste
          • water drunk china dangerous levels arsenic
        • Radioactive waste
          • nuclear waste remain dangerous for 1000's of yrs
    • Human  interference
      • Humans disrupted water supply
        • changing land use, such as deforestation
        • Talking too much ground water (over-abstraction)
        • reservoir construction
    • The costs and benefits of large-scale water management  projects
      • Big dams
        • flood control for areas downstream of dam
        • supply of fresh water for agriculture, industry n domestic consumption
        • supply power for hydroelectricity
        • Three Gorges Dam
    • Small scale solutions to water management issues
      • bottom up projects controlled by local community
      • relatively cheap and easy to set up
      • Easy to maintain using only simple (intermediate technology
      • addressing local issues especially water quality
      • Scheme
        • Rainwater harvesting
          • How does it work?
            • store rainwater jars
            • jars cheap 2 buy high capacity
          • Possible drawbacks?
            • jars can be expensive
            • villages do not have enough labour make jars acces loans arranged help purchase





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