geography- soft/hard engineering- reduce flooding

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  • Water On the Land
    • soft engineering to reduce impacts of flooding
      • flood warnings
        • what?
          • environment agency warn through tv, radio, internet
        • +
          • reduced impact
          • give people time to move things
            • place sandbags
            • to evacuate
        • -
          • don't stop flood
          • can't access warning
          • frequent flood= difficut to get insurance
      • preparation
        • what?
          • modify buildings-reduce damage caused
          • make plans
          • important document kept upstaires
          • keep emergency supply
        • +
          • impact reduced
          • less damaged building
          • locals know what to do
          • less worried
        • -
          • doesn't gurantee safety
          • false sense of security
          • expensive to modify infrastructure
      • flood plain zoning
        • what?
          • restriction- stop building on flood plain areas thats likely to flood
        • +
          • reduced risk
            • less impermeable surface created
          • reduced impact
        • -
          • limited urban area expansion
          • no use if already built up
      • do nothing
        • no money spent=no new engineering
        • flooding= naural process
        • +
          • flooding=deposited material on flood plain
            • fertile farmland
        • -
          • risk and impact still there
    • Hard engineering=control river flow=reduce flooing
      • dams and resevoirs
        • what?
          • dams built acroos rivers
            • in upper course
          • resevoir behind dam
        • +
          • resevoir store water in prolonged rain period
            • reduce flooding risk
            • used to drink
            • used for HEP power
        • -
          • expensive to build
          • need to flood existing settlement
          • eroded material desposited in resevoir
            • not rivers natural course
              • farmland downstream = less fertile
      • channel straightening
        • what?
          • straighten river course
            • cut out meander using artificial straight channels
        • +
          • water move out of area more quickly
            • reduce flooding risk
        • -
          • flooding = downstream instead
            • flood water carried there faster
          • more erosion downstream
            • faster flowing water

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