geography- water on the land- river landforms- 3 courses

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  • Water on the Land
    • river landforms- middle course
      • characteristics
        • less steep gradient
        • lateral erosion=dominant
        • use up extra energy= meander
        • erosion on ouside meander bend= remove interlocking spurs ends
        • wider valley
      • landform
        • meander
          • cross section
            • outer bound
              • undercutting- abrasion
                • river cliff
                  • deep water , fastest flow
            • inner bound
              • deposition
                • slip off slope
                  • shallow, slack water
    • river landforms- upper course
      • characteristics
        • v-shaped valley
        • inter-locking spurs
        • high water velocity
        • narrow, sahllow channel
      • water falls
        • process
          • bands of different resistant rocks
            • soft rock eroded (abrasion)- undercutting created
              • hard rock hang over- cap rock
                • gravity pull- hard rock collapse
                  • water +loose rock erode =deep plunge pool
        • undercutting collapsing
          • retreat upstream
            • steep sided gorge
    • river landforms- lower course
      • characteristics
        • wider deeper channel
        • flow through flood plain
        • deposition =dominant process
          • reasons
            • large load
            • reduced velocity- inner meander bend
            • obstruction= bridge
            • water volume reduction
      • river landforms
        • ox-bow lake
          • wider meander
            • lateral erosion- meander migration
              • deposition=change position
                • erosion narrows meander neck
                  • flood= neck brocken through
                    • straight channel
                      • ox-bow lake formed
                        • dried=meander scar
        • delta
          • enter sea / lake
            • velocity reuce
              • deposition occurs
                • if blocked= find new route
                  • form distributaries
                • material build up and outwards
                • current cannot carry them away/ tideless area
        • levees
          • river transport material
            • river overflow- water cover flood plain
              • cover large area= loses speed
                • river deposit heavy material- coarse material
                  • levee created=natural embankment
                    • lighter,finer silt travel across flood plain

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