Unit 2 Section 1.1 Water

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  • Water
    • Functions of water
      • water is vital to living organisms, it makes up about 80% of a cell's contents and has loads of important functions, inside and outside cells  such as;
        • water is a reactant in loads of important chemical reactions, like photosynthesis and hydrolysis reactions
        • Water transports substances. the fact that its a liquid, a solvent and cohesive means it can easily transport all sorts of materials, like glucose and oxygen around plants and animals
        • water helps with temperature control because it has ahigh specific heat capacity and a high latent heat of evaporation
        • water is a habit. the fact that it helps with temperature control, is a solvent and becomes less dense when it freezes means many organisms can survive and reproduce in it
    • Structure of water
      • Polarity of water
        • a molecule of water is one atom of oxygen joined to two hydrogen atoms by shared electrons
        • because the shared negative hydrogen electrons are pulled towards the oxygen atom, the other side each hydrogen atom is left with a slight positive charge
        • the unshared negative electrons on the oxygen atom give it a slight negative charge
        • this makes water a polar molecule it has a slight negative charge on one side and a slight positive charge on the other
      • Hydrogen Bonding
        • hydrogen bonds are weak bonds between a slightly positively charged hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negatively charged atom in another molecule
        • hydrogen bonds orm between water molecules because the slightly negatively charged oxygen atoms of water attract the slightly positively charged hydrogen atoms of other water molecules. this hydrogen bonding gives water some of its useful properties
    • properties of water
      • High specific heat capacity
      • high latent heat of evaporation
      • Very Cohesive
      • Lower Density when Solid
      • Good Solvent


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