Water

Water and it's properties- apologies for the amount of colour- found it hard to separate the information on the left so decided to do it in colour instead

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  • Water
    • Polar Molecule
      • Each hydrogen shares a pair of electrons with oxygen
        • Oxygen has a greater affinity for electrons
          • oxygen has a slightly negative charge
          • hydrogen has a slightly positive charge
      • A polar molecule has different charged areas
    • Hydrogen Bonds
      • Slight negative charge of the oxygen of one water molecule is attracted to the slightly positive hydrogen atom of another molecule
      • individually are weak
        • when there are many they stick together forming a strong lattice framework
          • Known as Cohesion
    • Properties of Water
      • Solvent
        • Polar nature makes it a good solvent for dissolving:
          • Ions
          • Other Polar molecules
        • Many chemical reactions occur in solution so water is an excellent transport medium
          • Animals
            • The blood transports dissolved substances around the body
          • Plants
            • Xylem transports water and mineral ions
      • Surface Tension
        • When water meets air, water molecules form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules but not the air
          • Cohesion produces an uneven distribution of force
            • surface tension- this forms a skin that can support aquatic plants and insects
          • hydrogen bonds pull water molecules together
      • Specific Heat
        • How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of water?
        • High specific heat capacity as energy is needed to break the hydrogen bonds
          • water resists temperature changes providing a more stable environment
            • Aquatic organisms
            • Prevents enzymes from becoming denatured
        • Untitled
      • Latent Heat
        • High latent heat
          • Allows evaporation from the surface of organisms to provide a significant cooling effect
        • How much heat is required to cause water to evaporate?
          • energy to break hydrogen bonds
      • Density
        • Less dense as a solid than a liquid
          • Ice floats on water
        • When water freezes it forms hydrogen bonds with four other molecules
          • This structure holds molecules further apart than in a liquid
        • Ice
          • Floats on water
          • Forms insulating layer
            • Aquatic organisms can survive in frozen lakes
            • Habitat for polar bears
      • Transparency
        • Allows light to pass through so aquatic plants can photosynthesise effectively
  • H20
    • Water
      • Polar Molecule
        • Each hydrogen shares a pair of electrons with oxygen
          • Oxygen has a greater affinity for electrons
            • oxygen has a slightly negative charge
            • hydrogen has a slightly positive charge
        • A polar molecule has different charged areas
      • Hydrogen Bonds
        • Slight negative charge of the oxygen of one water molecule is attracted to the slightly positive hydrogen atom of another molecule
        • individually are weak
          • when there are many they stick together forming a strong lattice framework
            • Known as Cohesion
      • Properties of Water
        • Solvent
          • Polar nature makes it a good solvent for dissolving:
            • Ions
            • Other Polar molecules
          • Many chemical reactions occur in solution so water is an excellent transport medium
            • Animals
              • The blood transports dissolved substances around the body
            • Plants
              • Xylem transports water and mineral ions
        • Surface Tension
          • When water meets air, water molecules form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules but not the air
            • Cohesion produces an uneven distribution of force
              • surface tension- this forms a skin that can support aquatic plants and insects
            • hydrogen bonds pull water molecules together
        • Specific Heat
          • How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of water?
          • High specific heat capacity as energy is needed to break the hydrogen bonds
            • water resists temperature changes providing a more stable environment
              • Aquatic organisms
              • Prevents enzymes from becoming denatured
          • Untitled
        • Latent Heat
          • High latent heat
            • Allows evaporation from the surface of organisms to provide a significant cooling effect
          • How much heat is required to cause water to evaporate?
            • energy to break hydrogen bonds
        • Density
          • Less dense as a solid than a liquid
            • Ice floats on water
          • When water freezes it forms hydrogen bonds with four other molecules
            • This structure holds molecules further apart than in a liquid
          • Ice
            • Floats on water
            • Forms insulating layer
              • Aquatic organisms can survive in frozen lakes
              • Habitat for polar bears
        • Transparency
          • Allows light to pass through so aquatic plants can photosynthesise effectively
  • Two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to one oxygen atom
    • H20

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