Water soluble vitamins

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  • Water soluble vitamins
    • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
      • FUNCTIONS
        • Muscle contraction
        • Breakdown + release of energy from carbs
        • nervous system
        • Red blood cells + enzyme functioning
        • growth + good health
      • SOURCES
        • peas
        • breakfast cereals
        • bread
        • beans
        • vegetables
      • EXCESS EXCRETED
      • DEFICIENCY
        • Beriberi- kidney dialysis can increase risk
        • Build up of pyruvic acid which causes muscle weakness + heart palpitations
      • BIOAVAILABILITY + ABSORPTION
        • Alkaline condition speeds up loss of thiamine
    • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
      • FUNCTIONS
        • Energy release - macronutrient
        • Promotes iron metabolism
        • nervous system health
        • skin + eye health
      • SOURCES
        • milk
        • rice
        • liver
        • cheese
        • yoghurt
        • fortified cereals
      • EXCESS EXCRETED
      • DEFICIENCY
        • sluggish metabolism
        • cracks at corner of mouth
        • scaly skin
        • blood vessels invade corner of eyes
    • Vitamin B3 (Niacin/ nicotinic acid/ formed from tryptophan)
      • FUNCTIONS
        • energy release
        • healthy nervous + digestive system
        • essential for normal growth
        • cardiovascular system
      • SOURCES
        • meat
        • fish
        • wheat
        • flour
      • EXCESS EXCRETED
      • DEFICIENCY
        • dermatitis
        • diarrhoea
        • dementia
        • Untitled
      • ABSORPTION
        • More resistant to heat
    • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
      • SOURCES
        • Pork
        • Poultry
        • Fish
        • Eggs
        • Milk
        • Veg
        • Bananas
      • FUNCTIONS
        • Enzyme system
        • Protein synthesis
        • Hormones
        • haemoglobin
        • Healthy skin + nervous system
        • antibodies help fight ection
      • EXCESS can cause nerve damage over long time
      • DEFICIENCY
        • Anaemia
        • Dry cracked lips
        • Swollen tongue
        • Deficiency of vitamin c
    • Vitamin B12 (CYANCOBALAMIN)
      • FUNCTIONS
        • keeps body healthy
        • produces DNA + RNA
        • works w/ folic acid
        • enzyme systems
        • healthy nerves
      • SOURCES
        • eggs
        • liver
        • milks
        • cheese
      • EXCESS - outbreaks of acne
      • DEFICIENCY
        • anaemia
        • behavioural changes
        • nerve problems
        • Rare  (vegans)
      • ABSORPTION
        • stable
        • some loss in alkaline medium
        • absorption assisted by folate
    • Vitamin b9 (folate)
      • FUNCTIONS
        • neural tube development
        • energy release
        • homocysteine levels
        • cancer protection
        • brain functions
      • SOURCES
        • green leafy veg
        • fruit
        • liver
        • bread
      • DEFICIENCY
        • megaloblastic anaemia
        • NTDs
        • mouth ulcers
        • fatigue
        • increase risk of breast cancer
      • EXCESS - NERVE DAMAGE
      • ABSORPTION
        • Some lost by cooking in liquid alkaline solution
        • destroyed by heat oxidation
        • more difficult for elderly
    • Vitamin C
      • FUNCTIONS
        • wound healing
        • antioxidant
        • collagen
        • absorption of iron
      • SOURCES
        • oranges/citrus fruits
        • potatoes
      • EXCESS - harmful for kidney disease/ may cause nausea/ diarrhoea
      • DEFICIENCY
        • Scurvy
        • Poor wound healing
        • dry skin/scalp
        • irritability
        • weakening body tissue
      • ABSORPTION
        • Soluble in water
        • Unstable to heat
        • used quicker under stress

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