Water, Carbohydrates and Lipids

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  • Water, Carbohydrates and Lipids
    • Water
      • Hydrogen and Oxygen covalently bonded together
        • polar molecule- oxygen -ve and hydrogen +ve
          • molecules attracted together by weak hydrogen bonds
            • hydrogen bonds are weak, therefore water can flow
              • liquid between 0C and 100C- tf perfect habitat for living things to survive
                • Properties
                  • Latent Heat-large latent heat tf it can take a large amount of heat energy
                  • surface tension- top layer of water cannot stick to anything above it so it sticks below, pulling molecules down, making surface tense
                  • Density- Water expands when frozen, when frozen density will decrease tf ice is less dense than water and will tf float
                  • Acts as a solvent- Universal solvent, dipole- dissolves NaCl because opposites attract. Cl-H and Na-O
                  • High specific heat capacity- Requires large amount of energy
                  • cohesion- water molecules can stick to eachother
                    • adhesion-water can stick to surfaces e.g. xylem
    • monomer- single smaller molecule that form covalent bonds with similar molecules.
      • Condensation reaction- water is produced
        • Hydrolysis- when a covalent bond is broken by adding water
      • Monnosaccharides- eg. glucose, fructose, ribose and triose
    • polymer- large molecule made up by many similar monomers joining together by covalent bonds to form a chain or branched chain
      • Condensation reaction- water is produced
        • Hydrolysis- when a covalent bond is broken by adding water
      • amino acids-eg. glycine, valine and alanine
      • Untitled
    • carbohydrates
      • all carbs contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CH2O)x
      • include sipple sugars eg. glucose and complex sugars eg. sucrose, lactose, and also polysaccarides eg, glycogen and celulose
      • monnosaccaride
        • simples carb
        • glucose
          • Alpha and Beta- in alph tha -OH is below at C1 and in Beta, the -OH is above at C1
            • isomers
          • can be broken into smaller molecules by breaking bonds between the atoms to form CO2 and water
          • small molecule tf diffusses quickly and and is water soluble so is easily transported
      • Disaccharides
        • formed by 2 monosaccharides that are joined together by a glycosidic bons
          • each glycosidic bond is formed by the loss of to hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
          • maltose- a disaccharide formed when amylase breaks down starch by a hydrolysis reaction
          • glucose + fructose= sucrose
            • enzymes catalysethe hydrolysis of sucrose molecules and form glucose and fructose
      • polysaccharides
        • starch
          • polymer of alpha glucose, glycosidic bonds link each pair of alpha glucose molecules
            • 1,4 glycosidic bond
          • amylose
            • long chain coiled into a spring
          • amylopectin
            • long branched chain with short side arms of glucose units attatched to main chain by 1,6, glycosiic bonds
          • insoluble
          • function- major carbohydrate- storage molecule in plants
          • stored in amyloplast in plants and in chloroplasts
        • glycogen- alpha glucose,  more branchen than amyloppectinand chains tend to be shorter tf the molecules are very compact. stored as granulesin animal cellssuch as  aliver and  muscle cells. easily  brokendowninto glucose moleculeswhen body requires energy
        • cellulose-made up  of beta glucose that  are joined by glycosidic bonds,every other b glucose molecule is inverted. cellulose is bonded by hydrogen bonds, which creates cross links to  form microfibrils. bundles  of  microfibrils produces fibres. cellulose is  very stable and strong,forming cell walls in plants.


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