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  • Created by: vezting
  • Created on: 23-11-15 20:50
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  • molecules
    • water
      • functions
        • reactions, transport, temperature, habitat
        • hydrogen bonds- weak, form between skighty positive oxygen and slightly negative hydrogen
        • high specific heat capactity, takes a lot to heat up, good for contoll temp.
        • cohesive, good for flow, stick together because polar
        • low density when solid, particles held further appart, organsisms can still survive.
      • 1 atom oxygen, 2 hydrogen, shared electrons
      • water is polar, oxygen slightly positive, hydrogen slightly negative
    • proteins
      • monomer- one amino acid, dipeptide- 2 amino acids, polypeptide, a chain of amino acids
      • formation- condensation reaction forms peptide bonds. bond between carboxly group of one and amino group of another
      • structures
        • primary- sequence and order of amino acids
        • secondary- hydrogen bonds make either alpha helix coil or beta pleated sheet.
        • tertiary-
          • ionic interations- weak attractions between positive and negative R groups
          • disulphide bonds- when two cytosine atoms copme close together, the sulfur atoms form disulfide bond
          • H.phobic and H.phillic interactions- two H.phobic R groups come together they clump together meaning all H.phillic face outwards
        • quaternery- final 3D shape, EG haemoglobin, globular, 2 alpha chains, 2 beta chains, each pollypeptide has prosthetic group, haem groups contain iron, , soluable, carries oxygen
          • EG collagen, fiberous, tough and rope shaped, strong triple helix, interlinked covalent, minerals bind increase rigidity
    • carbohydrates
      • 1 carbohydrate- monosaccharide, 2 carbohydrates- disaccharide, a chain- polysaccharide
      • monosaccharide join together by gykosydic links between one hydrogen bond and a hydroxyl, it is condensation
      • alpha glucose- H at top of right, OH at botton, Beta glucose on the right has OH at top and H at bottom
      • starch, amylose- long unbranched alpha glucose, angles give coiled structure, compact, good for stirage,
        • amylopectin- long branched alpha glucose, branches give more SA for enzymes
      • glycogen- alpha glucose, many branches, large SA area, broken into glucose quickly, good storage, very compact.
      • cellulose- lunch unbranched Beta glucose, bonds between sugarsa are straight, cellulose chains linked by hydrogen bonds, form strong microfibril fibres, gives good structural support.
    • lipids
      • lipds are made from a variety of components but all contain hydrocarbons.
      • tryglicerides- one molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acid tails. joined by esther bond.
        • fatty acid tails- long chain hydrocarbon, hydrophobic, insoluable, saturated fatty acids, no double bonds,
        • trygliceride mostly used as storage, lots chemical energy
      • phospholipids, phosphate group, 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acid tails.
        • phosphate group is ionised, which makes it attract water, makes it hydrophillic, however fatty acid is hydrophobic,
        • phospholipids make up bilayer of cell, form double layer, with heads facing out they act as barrier to soluable substances,
      • cholesterol- has polar ydroxyl group, hydricarbon rings, hydrocarbon tail.
        • found in cell membranes, used to make things like steroids
        • cholesterol is soluable in water but not blood, in blood it is carried in lipoproteins.
        • cholesterol strengthens cell mebrane by binding to hypdrophobic tails in phospholips


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