Water

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  • Water
    • Functions
      • Provides oxygen in regard to its importance for maintaining life
      • Provides structural integrity to cells.
      • serves as body's delivery and waste removal medium
      • Blood plasma distributes nutrients, hormones, immune cells and oxygen
    • Water balance
      • Output
        • Kidneys         (Urine)     (500-1000 ml)
        • Skin        (450-1900 ml)
          • (Insensible and perspiration) volume of perspiration is 100 ml per day.  In hot conditions, a person can lose 1 to 2 litres per hour
        • Lungs     (250-400 ml)
        • Feces     (100-200 ml)
          • People with severe diarrhea can lose several liters of water per day in feces
      • Input
        • Food       (600-700 ml)
        • Drink       (450-2400 ml)
        • Metabolic (250-350 ml)
    • Dehydration
      • Condition resulting from negative balance
      • Effects of dehydrations
        • Leads to loss of blood volume which leads to decreased amount pumped around to working muscles
        • Decreased blood flow to muscles means less oxygen been delivered and leads to poor performance
        • Leads to extra heat and cv stress during exercise
        • As little as 2-3% decrease in body weight caused by dehydration can result in body temperature and heart rate despite fact that exercise intensity remained the same
        • Progressive increase in heart rate in absence of increase in intensity is known as cardiac drift
    • Monitoring hydration levels
      • Measuring bodyweight
      • Urine colour
    • Hyper - hydration
      • hyponatremia
        • rare condition resulting from dilution of sodium levels in body
      • Water intoxication
        • Condition resulting from excessive intake of water.  End result can be clinical condition known as hypontremia.
    • Recommend - ations for water intake
      • men + women over age 19 = 3.7 l and 2.7 l of water per day
      • males and females 14-18 y/o = 3.3 l and 2.3 l of water per day
      • males and females 9-13 y/o = 2.4 l and 2.1 l of water per day
      • males and females 4-8 y/o = 1.7
    • practical guidlines
      • athlete should be aware of his or her individual daily fluid needs and consume fluids accordingly
      • Optimal hydration should stimulate urination approx every 1-2 hours
      • Fluid can be obtained from milk, water, juices, coffee, tea and sports beverages

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