Wartime conferences

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  • Wartime conferences
    • Tehran November 1943
      • Roosevelt discussed how the new UN would work, with the roles of the 'four policeman' (GB, USA, USSR and China) ensuring peace.
      • Boundary of post-war Poland would be Oder-Neisse Rivers.
        • This would move the boundaries westwards, giving Russia territories in E. Poland it had occupied in 1939-40.
        • Significant as GB had gone to war in 1939 specifically to defend Poland's independence and was now accepting a major border change.
      • Roosevelt secured Stalin's agreement to declare war on Japan at a future date in return for territories.
      • Invasion of N. France by GB and USA agreed for May 1944.
        • Churchill preferred an invasion of the Balkans but the pressure was irresistible.
        • Stalin was suspicious of delaying the Normandy landings, believing it was an attempt to weaken the USSR.
      • Allies would persuade Turkey to enter the war in return for support but this didn't happen until 1945.
    • Yalta February 1945
      • Stalin saw the pro-Soviet Lublin Committee as true representatives of Poland. Churchill feared these Stalinists would exclude the democratic Polish representatives in London. It was agreed to enlarge the Lublin government and to hold free elections.
        • There was little guarantee Stalin would allow this.
      • Stalin wanted to take German machinery, food and goods.
        • Churchill and Roosevelt disagreed, doubting the wisdom of having millions of poor and starving people at Europe's heart.
      • Germany would be divided into four zones of occupation. Churchill insisted that France have a zone, fearful the US would withdraw after the war leaving GB to deal with USSR alone.
        • Stalin initially refused to give France a say in running Germany but finally agreed.
      • Stalin wanted more representation by individual republics of the USSR, fearing the UN would become anti-Soviet.
        • Roosevelt saw the UN as hope for the future but Stalin feared it would become anti-communist.
      • Stalin agreed to declare war on Japan but demanded more than at Tehran, with railway rights at Chinese Manchuria and access to Chinese port of Darien.
        • Roosevelt had to agree.
      • The agreement was put into the Declaration on Liberated Europe.
        • Its terms were vague and easy for Stalin to manipulate.
    • Potsdam July-August 1945
      • In Germany there would be an ACC made up of military commanders of the 4 zones. The Soviets insisted on complete control of their own zone. There was little overall government for Germany.
        • Disagreed how much control the ACC would have on the whole of Germany.
      • Agreed on reparations but policies varied hugely in each zone. An agreement that 15 per cent of reparations from the West would go to the Russian zone in return for food + raw materials didn't work.
      • No firm agreement on western frontier and this was left for a future peace conference. Western powers supported elections in Soviet-held territory in Poland, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria but there was no means of enforcing this.
      • Truman tried to threaten Stalin with a 'new weapon' but this made him more likely to give into demands.
        • Stalin already knew about the Manhattan Project through espionage.
      • Not a treaty but a protocol - not legally binding.
      • Lots of tension at this conference.
        • Bad tempered.
        • USA increasingly suspicious of Soviet expansion in E. Europe.
        • Accused Stalin of not sticking to democratic element of Yalta.
    • Atlantic August 1941
      • Resulted in Churchill and Roosevelt agreeing on an Atlantic Charter of shared democratic principles.
      • Occurred in NewfoundlandCanada
      • Demonstrates how Churchill wanted to keep relations friendly with Roosevelt.
        • He travelled all the way to Canada to agree a charter which Great Britain didn't apply to its overseas empire.

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