Warfare Pt.2

  • Created by: Ruthfeath
  • Created on: 19-05-18 08:37
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  • Warfare Pt.2
    • Weaponry
      • Swords & Daggers
        • Early swords had various roles, like ritual object & warfare
        • Early swords evolved out of the dagger
        • Before bronze, stone was used for 'cutting edged' tools & weapons - very fragile, so impractical
        • Due to copper being used & eventually bronze, daggers were made longer & became swords
        • Sword grips were often made of wood or ivory, sometimes decorated with gold applications - the hand grip was completed by a knob which could have been made of wood, ivory, amber or gold
      • Spears & Javelins
        • Group A spear and javelin points have a flat or narrow fixation tag, the blade is without grooves.
          • In some specimens the blade is pierced with two elongated holes or four small holes through which a cord could be threaded.
          • Their length is from 15.5 cm to amaximum of 38 cm.
        • Group B spear and javelin points have the unique "shoe" shape with an hollow clutch in which the wood shaft was fixed.
          • Their general length is from 11 cm to 18.6 cm.
        • Early Mycenaean spears consisted of a long wooden shaftabout 12ft long with a socketed spearhead made of bronze.
          • Shoe-sockets were cast on one or both sides into it.
          • Butleaf-shaped blade with a strong mid-rib and socketed base was more come in Mycenae.
          • Made by casting with the socket complete, or with asocket slit a flat; curved around to form a socket.
          • Spearhead tip ranged from 8-12 inches but could go up to 16 inches.
      • Bows & Arrows
        • Two main types of bow
          • simple wooden bow sometimesreinforced with sinew glued to the back to prevent breakage and to increase the bow's cast
          • compositebow which combines four materials -wood, sections of animal horn, animal tendons and sinews, and glue.
            • wood was sometimes not made from a single block but comprised pieces of wood from different trees with varying pliability.
        • Both the simple and composite bows can be divided in different types based on their shape:the simple curved bow; the double-convex bow; the triangular bow
    • Shields
      • Tower Shields
        • Most common type of early shield
        • Represented on frescoes, rings, pottery
        • Had internal wood structure, with several layers of toughened bull's hide  glued & stitched to a wicker structure. Wires could have been used to join together the layers.
      • Figure of Eight Shield
        • Most common type of Achaean body-shield
        • Depicted on pottery, wall-paintings and sculpture, both as defence weapons and a decorative motif orcult symbol.
        • Composed of two internal bow-shaped pieces of wood fastened to form a cross. Several layers of toughened bull's hide were glued and stitched to a wicker structure. A rim probably made of leather or bronze was normally placed around the shield.
      • Proto-Dipylon Shields
        • Another type of body-shield. Circular or oval, with two cuts on both sides, which allows a better utilization of the shield while fighting with a sword or spear.
        • Probably made of several layers of hide, probably sewn to a wicker frame, and  reinforced with metal bosses or plates placed on shield's external surface and edge.
        • Not as common as Tower or Figure Of Eight shields.
    • Helmets
      • Boar Tusk Helmets
        • Several boar tusks in different shapes and an upper element reinforced aperishable material helmet
        • Rite of passage to hunt the boar that would make up your helmet
        • Most elaborate ones were probably utilized by medium/high rank warlords
        • Ancestor of the typical Achaean and Minoan boar tusks helmets
        • Sometimes involved horse’s hair plumes/feathers for decoration
      • High Conical Helmets
        • Conical helmet with small cheek and neck guards
        • Reinforcing disks were probably made of ivory or metal
      • Low Profile Hollow-Eyed Helmets
        • Long curved cheek guards and ears opening
        • Generally made of leather or other perishable materials, but possibly in bronze for warfare
      • Horned Conical Helmets
        • Small horns made of boar-tusks, deer horns, or ivory
        • Neck protection and a throat strap
    • Chariots
      • Box Chariots
        • Crewed by 1 or 2 men - charioteer & warrior
          • Single warrior would use javelins or spears, while in a 2 man chariot, bow would be used
      • Quadrant Chariots
        • Appears to have had D-shaped floor
        • Siding was probably heat-bent rails, covered with ox-hide or wickerwork
        • Rare, known only from few examples
      • Dual Chariots
        • Most largely used
        • Semi-circular extensions attached to back of chariot box were unknown outside of Greek-influenced areas
          • Probably made from heat-bent wood with either textile or ox-hide stretched across frame
            • Box seems to have had same covering, which enclosed it on 3 sides
        • Military & peaceful purposes
          • Used as  fighting vehicle with spears, javelins & long swords
        • Mainly used to travel to and from battle in later part of period
      • Rail Chariots
        • Exact features difficult to reconstruct due to lack of evidence for them - mostly pictured on fragmented pottery
          • enough evidence can be pieced together from this to provide an idea of basic structure
        • Very light, characterised by open frame
        • Rail probably came up to hip, ran horizontally over front of box
          • Variations in presentation suggest that rail may have curved upward at the front corner
        • Mainly used to travel to and from battle in later part of period
        • Used as  fighting vehicle with spears, javelins & long swords
      • Four Wheeled Chariots
        • Not well documented because scenes in which it is depicted are quite fragmentary
          • Exact features difficult to reconstruct as result
    • Ships
      • Shallow-draught vessels, could be beached on sandy bays
      • Vessels were various sizes, containing different numbers of oarsmen
        • Largest ship probably had crew of -42-46 oarsmen, with 1 steering oar, a captain, 2 attendants & a complement of warriors
      • Most common type of vessel based on depictions of art was the oared galley with long & narrow hulls
        • Shape of hull was constructed to maximise number of rowers - higher speed could be achieved regardless of wind conditions
          • Although it carried mast & sail, it was less efficient as a sailing ship
      • Mycenaean galley offered some advantages
        • Although lighter than the oared sailing ship of Minoan Crete, it seated more rowers
        • Steering mechanism was a triangular steering oar - forerunner of latter steering oar of archaic era
      • Well documented that Mycenaeans used ships for trade & travel, but there is also significant evidence to show they used impressive ships during warfare

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