vulnerability to addiction 

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  • vulnerability to addiction
    • stress
      • everyday stress
        • people more likely to develop patterns of substance abuse
        • relieves anxiety
        • means of coping with everyday hassles
        • areas of high unemployment have higher rates of alcoholism
          • however can not be sure of this
        • problems of alcoholism more less likely in rural areas
          • could be due to social drift
      • traumatic stress
        • people exposed to severe trauma are more vulnerable
        • Dressen et al: 30% of drug addicts and 15% of alcoholics suffered from PTSD
        • 40% of solders used heroin at least one while serving in vietnam
          • why did only only some develop addictions
    • personality
      • some psychologists suggest there is an addictive personality type
      • tesson at el people addicted to drugs have higher then average scores on neuroticism
      • parke et al investigated personality types in pathological gamblers
        • pathological gamblers showed high levels of competitiveness and deferment gratification
    • peers
      • peer pressure is a very important factor for addictive behaviours
      • the peer group is a source of identity and learning social norms
        • attitude towards addictive behaviours has an effect
      • social identity theory assumes that group members adopt to the norms of the group
      • Sussman  peer use of drugs was a strong predictor
        • however family conflict and poor supervision by parents
      • Thombs et al  found a relationship between positive relationship between alcohol consumption and a friend's alcohol consumption
      • peer pressure can be restricted if they have parents who are against smoking
    • age
      • adolescence is a key time for people to acquire an addiction majority of smokers begin before 20
      • Sharm found that nicotine had a grater activating effect on the neural structure of adolescents then adults- suggests that adolescents more sensitive to The rewarding qualities of nicotine are less sensitive to the adverse effects
      • fidler et al found that adolescents who are more smoked just one cigarette by the age of 11 more likely to be regular smokers at 14


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