Vulnerabilities to addiction

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  • Created on: 04-05-15 15:54
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  • Vulnerabilities to addiction
    • These are also called risk factors, and are the 'stress' part of the diathesis-stress model.
    • 1) Age
      • AO1
        • Adolescents (aged 11-17) are most at risk to addiction.
      • AO2/3
        • BROWN - peer pressure is strongest influence to start smoking for adolescents.
        • SHRAM - studied neural activity of rats. Found nicotine increased neural activity quickest and most in 'adolescent rats'.
          • But it is an animal study, so we may not be able to generalise to humans.
        • 'CANADA HEALTH' - adolescent smokers are more likely to have other addictions - smoking is a gateway addiction.
    • 2) Peer pressure
      • AO1
        • Peer pressure is the behavioural influence of people around us,
      • AO2/3
        • DRAUS - heroin addicts support each other socially with their addiction (longer term addicts show new addicts how to do it).
        • SUSSMAN AND AMES -if a lot of your friends are addicts and you aren't, you are more likely to begin an addiction due to trust in friends (strong predictor of future drug use).
          • SUSSMAN AND AMES - initiation of addiction could be due to other factors, like family conflict, poor supervision, etc.
        • BULLERS - individual chooses their friendship group, therefore peer group may not actually be as influential as thought.
    • 3)Personality
      • AO1
        • Personality is an individuals beliefs and ideals.
          • Eynsenck said there were 3 aspects to personality: psychoticism (goal orientated without influence of others), neuroticism (worry, anxiety) and extraversion (social).
      • AO2/3
        • FRANCIS - using a questionnai-re, they found a correlation between high neuroticism and psychoticism scores and addiction.
    • 4) Gender
      • AO2/3
        • OGDEN AND FOX - female smokers see smoking as a diet suppressant.
        • JACOBS - males are more likely to gamble.
      • AO1
        • Smoking is highest among adolescent girls (in the UK and US)
          • This is because they perceive smoking as form of weight control (by hunger suppression).
    • 5) Media
      • AO1
        • Social learning theory (SLT)
          • Mainly vicarious reinforcement, addiction tends to be shown in a positive way (e.g. James Bond).
            • Adolescents are the most vulnerable, in a similar way to peer pressure.
        • Media = movies,  TV, adverts.
      • AO2/3
        • Addiction in films
          • SULKENEN - 140 scenes from 47 films showed positive images of addiction.
          • HAZAN - continual exposure is called the 'movie exposure effect'.
          • ? - media has 11 times more images of smoking than real life.
        • Affect of media on smoking
          • SARGENT AND HANEWINK-EL - 4384 adolescents over 1 year. Found correlation between number of 'media' with smoking seen and them starting smoking.
        • However
          • If media is so  influential, we should be able to use it to treat addiction
            • KRAUER - 2 groups of alcoholics in Holland. 1 shown TV guide on stopping alcoholism over 6 weeks, the other was a control group. Found majority of group 1 had quit, none of group 2 had.
              • RM: Very low validity as group 1 had doctors, psychologists, etc to help, but group 2 had no therapy until after the 6 weeks.
                • Therefore role of SLT and media not as strong as first thought (must be other factors involved).


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