GCSE tectonic hazard - VOLCANOES

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  • Volcanoes
    • Where?
      • Constructive Plate Boundaries
        • Magma rises up into  the gap created by plates moving apart - forming a volcanoe
      • Destructive Plate Boundaries
        • Oceanic plate goes under the continental plate (because it's more dense)
          • Oceanic plate moves down into the mantle - where it's melted/ destroyed
            • Pool of magma forms - rises through cracks in the crust called vents
              • Magma erupts onto the surface forming a volcano
      • Hotspots
        • Parts of the mantle that are really hot
    • Effects
      • Primary
        • Buildings and roads are destroyed by lava flows & pyroclastcic flows
          • Buildings may also collapse if enough ash falls on them
        • People and animals are injured or killed by pyroclastic flows, lava flows and falling rocks
        • Crops are damaged and water supplies are contaminated when ash  falls on them
        • People, animals and plants are suffocated by volcanic gases
      • Secondary
        • Mudflows form when  volcanic  material mixes with water
          • Mudflows and landslides cause more death destruction and injury
        • Flooding can be caused by hot rock, ash and gas melting ice and snow on the volcano, Rock and ash can also clog up rivers and dams.
        • Transport networks blocked or destroyed - emergency and aid vehicles can't get through
        • People are left homeless. Businesses damaged or destroyed causing unemployment
        • Tourism disrupted - but can then increase
        • Ash makes fields more fertile once it's broken down
        • Recovering can take a lot of money - damaging a country's economy
    • Responses
      • Immediate
        • Evacuate people before the eruption or as soon as possible
        • Provide food, drink and shelter for evacuated people
        • Treat the injured
        • Rescue anyone cut off by damage to roads or bridges
        • Untitled
      • Secondary

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