- Vocational Education
- Direct government involvement in youth training.
- Youth training - YTS started as a one year, work-based training scheme for school leavers.
- Training at work - eg Bank of England clerical youth training scheme.
- Cheap labour - do a job for little or no money but may be let go as soon as training is over.
- Vocational qualifications - established NVQs for specific occupations.
- GNVQs allow students to keep their options open but study broad occupation areas.