Virtue Ethics

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  • Virtue Ethics
    • Modern Virtue Ethics
      • Hugo Grotius
        • morality is fixed in natural laws which can be rationally perceived by all
      • Alasdair MacIntyre
        • believes our society lacks virtues
        • 'we have - very largely, if not entirely - lost our comprehension, both theoretical and practical, of morality'
        • morality has suffered a catastrophe
          • we are back in the Dark Ages
            • we have lost our moral wisdom
    • a third way of normative ethics
      • between teleological and deontological
        • teleological  - focuses on the consequences of the situation
        • deontological  - focuses on the action/ duty and is sometimes determined by the roles or the situation
      • ways in which we decide whether we are right or wrong
    • James F Keenan
      • summarised Virtue ethics in three questions
        • who am I?
        • who oight I become?
        • how do I get there?
    • Aristotle
      • "arête" = excellence or virtue
        • human flourishing
      • Two types of virtues
        • Intellectual virtues
          • learned through instructions
            • developed in the rational part of the soul
        • moral virtues
          • developed through habit
            • developed in the irrational part of the soul
      • vice of deficiency - too little of the virtue
      • vice of excess - too much of the virtue
      • Book: Nicomachean Ethics
      • by practising, we improve our virtue and become better people
        • our ultimate goal is "eudaimonia" = quality of happiness
    • person centered rather than action centered
    • Critiques
      • Philippa Foot
        • despite virtues not guaranteeing happiness, they go some way to achieving it
      • Alasdair MacIntrye
        • Virtue Ethics is realistic and applicable to real-life situations, unlike other time-consuming and complex theories
      • Mel Thompson
        • strives for personal autonomy for the individual but it is done in the context of society

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