victimology

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  • Victimology
    • Victims of crime
      • "those who have suffered acts that violate the law"
      • Christie - sees victim as soc const
        • there is an ideal victim stereo (fav by med)
          • "weak, inno & blameless" who are target of strangers attack
    • positive victimology
      • look @ c&e (link to Funct)
      • Miers - 3 features
        • 1) aims to id factors that prov 'patt in victimisation'
        • 2) focuses on 'interpersonal' crime of vio
        • 3) aims to id victims who have contributed to own victimisation
      • victim proneness
        • Von Hentig - 13 chars of victim
        • early studies focus on soc & psy chars that make victims diff f/ non vic's
        • sugg victims 'invite' victimisation
      • Wolfgang - 588 Philadelphia homicides
        • 26% involved victim precipitation (where victim triggers own murder)
      • EVAL
        • ignores cases where victim isn't known/ doesn't know they are victim - w.c.c
        • degree of victim blaming - unethical
        • highlights how victimisation = matter of chance
    • Victimisation surveys
      • BCS prod by home office
        • EVAL
          • reliable - uncovering crimes not rep
          • uncovers dark fig
          • only researched into property & vio crimes
          • excludes victimless crimes e.g. drugs
          • BCS ignores Scot & Ire
          • people unaware are victims
    • Critical victimology
      • linked t Marxism & Fem
      • Fauson - structural factors
        • e.g. pat, pov etc (put women @ greater risk)
        • victimisation is 'form of structural powerlessness'
      • the states power to apply/ deny label of victim
        • 'victim' = soc const
        • state applies label of victim to some but not others - i.e. pol not pursuing dom vio case
        • Tombs & Whyte - heath & safety injury = 'acidents' - crimes of employers
          • has ideo function - hides real causes of crime & probs
      • EVAL
        • disreg role victims play in own vicimisation
        • useful in showing how vic status is soc const by power (& how it ben powerful)
        • highl structural links to victimisation
    • Social class
      • poorest groups = > likely to be victimised - crime rates = highest in areas on umep/ dep
      • Newborn & Rock - 300 homeless people - 12x > likely to be vict of vio
        • why?
          • close to env that 'causes' crime
          • poorest groups can't afford crime prev measures
    • Age
      • younger people > @ risk - infants under 1 = > likely of murder
      • Teens > @ risk of assult, sex har
      • why?
        • youths out @ night
        • adults @ home - < likely
        • alcohol - teens - sex harr
      • elderly i.e abuse in nursing home
    • impact
      • fear
        • crime creates fear
        • this is irrational & doesn't reflect true victimisation pattern
        • i.e. women fear > but < likely
      • hate crims ag min = impact on whole comm e.g. Stephen Lawrence
      • can create indirect victims e.g. witnesses
      • phys/ psy effects

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