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  • Victimisation
    • Characteristic
      • Class
        • Working class are more at risk.
      • Gender
        • Males are at greater risk than females.This is as they are aloud out more and are less cautious of whats going on around them
      • Age
        • Younger people between 18-24 are most at risk.
      • Ethnicity
        • Minority ethnic groups are most likely to be a victim.
      • Those that have already been a victim are most likely to be a victim again.
    • Positive victimology
      • Miers: 3 features of positive victimology.
        • There are factors which produce crime patterns.
        • It focuses on interpersonal crimes of violence
        • It aims to identify victims who have contributed to their own victimisation.
      • Early positivists focussed on victim proneness, this is identifying the characteristics of victims and how there different to none victims.
        • Hans van hentig (1948) identified 13 characteristics of victims. This includes lifestyle choices.
    • Critical victimology
      • Critical victimology is based on conflict theories such as Marxism and feminism.
        • Structural factors such as patriarchy and poverty are what causes those groups to be more at risk of victimisation.
    • Impact of victimisation
      • Crime may have serious physical and emotional impacts on its victims.
      • Crime may also create indirect victims such as witnesses, relatives and friends.
      • Secondary victimisation: This is the idea that the victim is also victimised by the criminal justice system.
      • Fear of victimisation: Crime may create a fear of becoming a victim. Some sociologists argue that this fear is irrational.


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