Vertebrate Zoo L1

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  • Vertebrate Zoo Lecture 1
    • Define and Diagnose
      • Diagnose
        • shared characteristic
          • E.g. Extant mammals: shared possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands....
      • Define
        • common ancestry (taxonomic membership)
          • E.g. Extant mammals: all living monotremes, placentals and marsupials
    • What are vertebrates?
      • Cartilagious fish
      • Bony fish
      • Amphibians
      • Reptiles
      • Birds
      • Mammals
      • Debatable organisms...
        • Hagfish and Lampreys
          • Both closely related. Currently both lumped in with verts.
          • Displays chordate features (larval form) such as the post-anal tail; notochord; endostyle
      • Deuterostomes- Chordates
        • Coelom forms from embryonic gut.
          • Process similar to invertebrates, except that the mesoderm doesn't form as an outpouching of the embryonic gut.
        • At least primitively or in some stage of their development have several features.
          • Diagnostic features of Chordate Deuterostomes
            • Notochord
              • DOESN'T change into the backbone, but is REPLACED by vertebrae.
              • Plays a role in inducing the formation of the hollow nerve cord (neural tube) dorsal to it
                • 1. Notochord forms from mesoderm cells soon after gastrulation is complete.
                  • 2. Signals from notochord cause inward folding of ectoderm at the neural plate.
                    • 3. Ends of neural plate fuse and disconnect to form an autonomous neural tube.
            • Hollow dorsal nerve chord
            • Spinal nerves
            • Untitled
            • Spinal ganglia
            • Post-anal tail
            • Metametric muscle blocks
            • Endostyle
            • Pharyngeal site
        • The Lancelet (Amphioxus): thought to approximate the morphology of the earliest chordates.
        • Deuterostome characteristics of vertebrates
          • Indeterminate cell fate at 8-cell stage.
          • Radial cleavage
          • Enterocoely
          • Deuterostomy
    • Diagnostic features of Chordate Deuterostomes
      • Notochord
        • DOESN'T change into the backbone, but is REPLACED by vertebrae.
        • Plays a role in inducing the formation of the hollow nerve cord (neural tube) dorsal to it
          • 1. Notochord forms from mesoderm cells soon after gastrulation is complete.
            • 2. Signals from notochord cause inward folding of ectoderm at the neural plate.
              • 3. Ends of neural plate fuse and disconnect to form an autonomous neural tube.
      • Hollow dorsal nerve chord
      • Spinal nerves
      • Untitled
      • Spinal ganglia
      • Post-anal tail
      • Metametric muscle blocks
      • Endostyle
      • Pharyngeal site

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