venous return

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  • venous return
    • the transport of deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart
      • increased when doing exercise
    • starlings law of the heart
      • stroke volume is dependent on venous return
    • pocket valves
      • one way valves
      • prevent back flow
      • direct blood towards the heart
    • muscle pump
      • veins between skeletal muscles
      • when muscles contract on exercise blood squeezed along theses veins back to heart
    • respiratory pump
      • breathing deeper and faster in exercise
      • pressure changes in thorax and abdomen
      • increased pressure squeezes large veins here forcing blood back to heart
    • smooth muscle
      • middle layer of veins are smooth muscle
      • contraction + relaxation of this pushes blood back to heart
    • gravity
      • blood from upper body aided by gravity a it flows back to heart

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