Variety of living organisms

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  • Variety of living organisms
    • Plants
      • Multicellular organisms
      • Contain chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis
      • Cells have cellulose cell walls
      • Store carbohydrates as starch or sucrose
      • Have a permanent vacuole
    • Animals
      • Multicellular organisms
      • Their cells do not contain cellulose and cannot carry about photosythesis
      • Don't have cell walls
      • Have nervous coordination and can move from one place to another
      • Often store carbohydrates as glycogen
      • Have cytoplasm
      • These include mammals and insects
    • Fungi
      • Cannot carry out photosynthesis
      • Body is usually organised into a mycelium made from thread-like structures called hyphae
        • Hyphae contain many nuclei
      • Some are single-celled
      • Cell walls are made of chitin
      • Feed by extracellular secretion of digestive enzymes onto food material and absorption of organic products
        • Saprotrophic nutrition
      • May store carbohydrates as glycogen
      • Have mitochondria
      • Cell membrane
      • Riibosome
      • Mucor has the typical fungal hyphal structure, yeast (single-celled)
    • Bacteria
      • Microscopic single-celled organisms
      • Have a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm and plasmids
      • Lack a nucleus but contain a circular chromosome of DNA
      • Some can carry out photosynthesis but most feed off other living or dead organisms
      • Lactobacillus bulgarcis, a rod shaped bacterium used in producing yoghurt from milk
      • Pneumococcus, a spherical bacterium which acts as the pathogen causing pneumonia
    • Protoctists
      • Microscopic single-celled organisms
      • Some, like Amoeba, live in pond water: have animal features
      • Others, like Chlorella , have chloroplasts and are more like plants
      • A pathogenic example is Plasmodium, responsible for causing malaria
        • Pathogens are microorganisms which can cause diseases
    • Viruses
      • Small particles, smaller than bacteria
      • Parasitic and can reproduce only inside living cells
        • Infect every type of living organism
      • Wide variety of shapes and sizes
        • Have no cellular structure but have a protein coat and contain one type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA
      • The tobacco virus which causes discolouration of tobacco plants by preventing formation of chlorplasts
      • Influenza virus which causes the flu
      • HIV virus which causes AIDs


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