• Created by: sierrah
  • Created on: 04-07-14 02:49
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  • Vaccines
    • Definitions
      • Vaccination
        • artificially introducing an antigen of a pathogenic organism non-self) to produce antibodies without suffering the disease    
      • Immunisation
      • Vaccine
        • antigen preparation used in artificial immunization – can be administered by needle or drops. 
          • Researching spray, skin patches or genetically modified foods    
    • Types
      • Traditional Methods
        • Toxoids
          • collect the toxins produced by the bacteria/micro-organism, are inactivated then administered – body will make antibodies and memory cells    
        • Dead micro-organisms
          • micro-organisms have been killed and are then administered so the body responds by making antibodies ad memory cells – not as effective as 1    
        • Sub-units
          • only a fragment of the micro-organism is used then administered, producing antibodies and memory cells    
        • Living Attenuated
          • living non-self pathogenic micro-organisms which have a reduced virulence ie reduced ability to cause the disease, but the body still makes antibodies and memory cells    
      • New Methods
        •  Modify DNA of pathogen to reduce its virulence
        • Recombinant DNA technology (insert DNA into a harmless bacteria and administer)
        •  Introduce viral DNA/RNA into a living cell and allow it to multiply, then we use these to produce vaccine
    • Vaccination of populations
      • Herd immunity
        •  Increasing number of population vaccinated (to a particular disease) in a population, or increased proportion of people in a community who are immune to a particular disease
        •  Benefits: decreased spread of disease/decreased number of people who could suffer disease so saving money in terms of health care/hospital admissions
    • Side effects of vaccines
      • Local
        • R edness, swelling, itching at site of injection    
        • Allergic reaction to egg or preservatives (in vaccine)
        • Pain/hard lump
      • Systemic
        • Fever, nerve damage, muscle aches/pains, systemic anaphylaxis, vomiting, diarrhea, fainting, seizures, decreased appetite, sleepiness
    • Risks
      • Main risk – allergic reactions, mainly to medium in which vaccine is cultured eg influenza cultured in fertilized eggs (people allergic to egg protein)
      • Impossible to isolate one virus from others in animal tissue used as culture medium
      • Cross-species diseases eg AIDS virus spread from apes to humans through contaminated oral polio vaccine given to 300 000 Africans
      • Allergic reactions to preservatives eg formaldehyde, phenol, acetone
      • Clinical trials - safety guidelines for manafacture
        • Evaluated by TGA (Therapeutic Goods Administration) in Aus -   Ensures effectiveness, quality and safety
    • Ethical concerns
      • Some people concerned with how viruses are cultured for vaccines – treatment of animals 
      • Rubella vaccine manufactured using cells from aborted human fetuses – what happens for people who are against abortion?
      • Testing of vaccines often occurs in developing countries, or on mammals, amphibians or fish
  • programming the immune system so the body can respond more rapidly to infecting microorganisms – artificial or natural
    • Immunisation


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