AS Biology - Unit 1 - Disease and Immunity

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  • Unit 1 - Disease and Immunity
    • Micro-organisms as pathogens
      • To be considered a pathogen, it must gain entry to the host, colonise and cause damage to the hosts tissues and resist the defences of the host.
        • Gains entry to the host by: Gas Exchange system, skin, digestive system.
        • Causes damage by: Production of toxins, rupturing cells, breaking down nutrients inside the cell, replicating inside the cell, causing it to burst
    • Life-style and Health
      • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD): poor diet - high in saturated fat or salt, smoking, lack of exercise, excessive alcohol intake - lead to high blood pressure. Cancer: smoking, excessive exposure to sunlight, excessive alcohol intake.
      • Risk Factors: smoking, diet, obesity, physical activity, sunlight, inherited, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol
        • Reducing the factors
          • Give up smoking, avoid becoming obese, reduce salt intake in diet, reduce intake of cholesterol and saturated fat in diet, take regular aerobic exercises, keep alcohol consumption within safe limits, increase intake of dietary fibre
    • Interpreting  data about risk factors and disease
      • Draw  conclusions: the risk of ... has (increased / decreased) for..., you CAN'T conclude if something causes the other, only mention that there is a link.
      • Evaluate the Methodology: if sample size is large - results are more reliable. does it take into account other life style factors?


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