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  • Created by: B.S
  • Created on: 12-05-14 16:26
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  • Utilitarianism
    • Bentham
      • Bentham believed that morality wasn't based on the authority of God. he believed it was based on the authority of nature and the equalling of pleasure and pain.
      • in order to put this into practise he devised the hedonic calculus
      • Hedonic calculus: Purity, Remoteness, Intensity, Certainty, Extent, Duration and Fecudity
      • promotes well being of majority. he rejects human rights. His method is difficult to apply as its hard to predict the consequences.
      • Act utilitarianism - greatest good for greatest number
    • Mill
      • mill stressed the idea of happiness rather than pleasure.
      • he modified Bentham's principle of utility to a qualities approach: looking higher at pleasures as being greater quality than lower pleasures
      • higher pleasures are those of the mind and lower pleasures are of the body
      • mill thought that making the minority accept the wishes of what the majority would not make for a good society
      • he thought what is good for one person is good for all. he called this the principle of Universalisability, this mean human rights were important as the golden rule of Jesus.
      • linked to Rule utilitarianism - greatest happiness for greatest number
    • Singer
      • Preference utilitarianism
      • good action is one that maximises the preferences of all those involved so no-one wants/needs are taken over anyone else's
      • happiness created by satisfying as many of their preferences as possible.
      • to make an ethical decision its necessary to have an impartial spectator to speak their view.
    • general facts
      • teleological or consequentalist approach to ethics which argues what is good and bad according to its benefits for the majority of people.


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