Utilitarianism

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  • Utilitarianism
    • Arguments
      • eliminates personal preference
      • presumes human well-being is intrinsically good
      • Democratic - Majority rule
      • circumstances justified without resorting to precedent
      • fails to represent minority rights
        • human rights infringed
      • majority are not always right
      • single principles can't apply to all moral decision
      • reduces people to a number
      • Ignores God
      • human life is not equal
      • justifies atrocities
    • Scholars
      • John Stuart Mill
        • wanted to improve utilitarianism
          • higher and lower pleasures
        • "better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"
      • H Sidgwick
        • "How can you distinguish between 2 higher pleasures?"
      • Jeremy Bentham
        • "greatest good for the greatest number"
      • Ross
        • "life is too complex for a single theory"
      • Williams
        • "a person's identity is bound in their morality"
      • P Singer
        • unreasonable for one's higher pleasure to have less value than another's
      • Sandel
        • Queen vs Dudley and Stephens
      • Kant
        • Deontolgical
    • Key Words
      • Hedonic Calculus - Measure of happiness
        • Free from pain?
        • certainty of happiness?
        • near / remote?
        • likely to lead to further pleasure?
        • how far reaching?
        • temporary / permanent?
        • deep / superficial?
      • a priori
        • knowledge before experience
      • a posterori
        • knowledge after experience
  • Rule utilitarianism
    • John Stuart Mill
      • wanted to improve utilitarianism
        • higher and lower pleasures
      • "better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"

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