Utilitarianism

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  • Created by: Harriet
  • Created on: 07-01-13 16:51
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  • Utilitarianism
    • Singer
      • Preference Utilitarinism
      • Judges moral actions according to whether they fit with preferences of individuals involoved
        • What  would I prefer in this situation?
      • Should maximise the best interests
      • Everyone given equal consideration
      • Whos preferences are most important?
      • Principle of Utility
        • Try to maximise the satisfaction of peoples preferences
        • Weigh up intersets of everyone involves
          • Whos preferences are most important?
        • Take all interests into consideration
        • Choose option that brings best consequence, on balance for all involved and affected
          • Benefits majority, what about minorities
    • Bentham
      • Hedonic Calculus
        • Remoteness- how near it is
        • Intensity- how powerful it is
        • Extent- how many people it affects
        • Certainty-how likely it is to happen
        • Duration how long it lasts
        • Purity- how free from pain it is
        • Richness- to what extent will it lead to other pleasures
        • Unique to each situation and individual
        • Helps people work though their moral dilemma
      • Act Utilitarianism
      • Principle of Utility
        • Greatness good for the greatness number of people
          • Disregard to minorities
        • Maximise pleasure and minimise pain
          • Accused of being pleasure seekers
        • Everyone is treated equally
      • Consequential
        • Only looks at the outcome to decide if an action is morally justifiable
        • Reconises the  importance of the final outcome
        • Justify anything so long as the consequence was 'good'
        • How will children learn what is right and wrong
      • Pleasure and happiness are the same thing
        • No distinction between types of pleasure
      • Motivation
        • All humans seek pleasure and avoid pain
          • Other motivations too
    • Mill
      • Rule Utilitarianism
      • Higher and lower pleasures
        • Recognises not all pleasures are the same
        • Quality more important than quantity
        • Cant be accused of merely being pleasure seekers
        • Elitist- rich people can access these pleasure more easily
        • People tend to seek lower pleasures
      • Universalisability
        • Is it acceptable for others to act in this way too
        • Moral rules established- benifitting society as a whole
  • Cant predict future so hard to caculate
    • Hedonic Calculus
      • Remoteness- how near it is
      • Intensity- how powerful it is
      • Extent- how many people it affects
      • Certainty-how likely it is to happen
      • Duration how long it lasts
      • Purity- how free from pain it is
      • Richness- to what extent will it lead to other pleasures
      • Unique to each situation and individual
      • Helps people work though their moral dilemma

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