Utilitarianism

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  • Utilitarianism
    • Teleological
      • Moral actions = right or wrong according to outcome or telos
    • Consequentialist
      • Someone who decides if an action = right or wrong by its consequences
    • Principles of utility
      • The theory of usefulness - 'the greatest happiness for the greatest number'
    • Hedonism
      • The view that pleasure = the chief 'good'
    • Hedonic calculus
      • B's method of measuring the good + bad effects of an action
      • Intensity, Duration, Certainty, Nearness, Consequences, Purity and Extent
    • Quantitative
    • Act Utilitarianism (BA)
      • A telelogical theory that uses the outcome of an action to determine whether = good or bad
      • -'s: cannot predict outcomes, cannot define pleasure, can justify any act, impractical to calculate, and no defense fr minorities
    • Qualitative
      • Looking at quality of pleasure :-) or :D
    • Rule Utilitarianism (MR)
      • Establishing a general rule that follows utilitarian principles
      • -'s: Sidgewick: points out how it's subjectivity = an issue - hard to distinguish between higher and lower pleasure in practice and Hare: points out that with this, it would still be possible to justify slavery as the rights of the minority = never pointed out
    • Universalisability
      • What = right or wrong for one person in a situation = right or wrong at all
    • Preference utilitarianism
      • Moral actions = right or wrong according to how they fit in the preferences of those involved
    • +'s: secular = universal, appeals to desire to pursue pleasure and provides a decision procedure
    • -'s: justifies evil acts so that good may comes, could subvert justice, and doesn't account for unavoidable human relationships i..e more likely to save your Mam than a stranger

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