Utilitarianism

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  • Created by: ceyda
  • Created on: 11-05-13 15:54
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  • Utilitarianism
    • Peter Singer
      • All preferences are taken to account and count as one
      • An action that maximises the preference that individual makes in life
      • Best consequence is one that has the best interest of the individual involved
      • "an action is wrong if itdoesnt satisfy the prefernce of the being involved unless the preferenceis one of the minority''
    • John Stuart Mill
      • Rule Utilitarianism
        • Greatest good for the greatest number
        • Rule takes priority over immediate situation
          • general happiness making rules
        • general happiness making rules
      • He wished to reformulate the theory
        • concerned that one persons pleasure is completely extinguished if majority gained pleasure from  act
          • Well being of individual is important
        • Not all pleasures are of equal value
          • Lower pleasures
            • Lower qualities associated with animals. eg, drinking, eating, sleeping, sex
            • they are physical pleasures. less intellectual
            • Those who lack intelligence and character choose bodily pleasures
          • Higher pleasures
            • only humans can experience this. eg poetry, reading, classical music
            • Preferred over quantitative pleasures
            • "humans faculties more elevated that animal appetites, once conscience of them, they dont regard anything as pleasure that doesnt involve them"
              • "it is better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied, better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"
        • Self sacrifice is nessecary if it achieves GGFTGN
          • Individual still isn't considered
            • "It is not the agents own happiness but the greatest amount of happiness together"
    • Jeremy Bentham
      • "An action is right if it produces the  greatest good for the greatest number of people"
        • "Always act  in such a way to maximise pleasure and minimise pain"
      • Act Utilitarianism
        • Principle of utility directly applied to each situation
        • Flexible as rules and laws can be broken easily
        • Decision is right or wrong depending on the consequence
      • Hedonic  calculus
        • Duration: How long does it last?
        • Extent: Number of people effected by it
        • Purity: The sensation not being followed by sensations of pain
        • Remoteness: how near is the pleasure and pain?
        • Intensity: the strength of the sensation
        • Chance: the chance it will happen again
        • Certainty it will happen again
      • We should receive the maximum pleasure
      • Hedonistic
        • Pleasure is  pure good and pain is pure evil
        • Pleasure is the ultimate good
      • Humans are motivated by pleasure and pain
        • Humans follow pleasure and try to avoid pain
        • "Nature has placed man kind under two sovereigns; pain and pleasure. they point out what we ought to do and what we shall do"
    • Principle of Utility
      • Whether an act is right or wrong depending on its usefulness
        • Usefulness of the act depending on  the amount of happiness produced by an action
    • Teleological approach
      • Jeremy Bentham
        • "An action is right if it produces the  greatest good for the greatest number of people"
          • "Always act  in such a way to maximise pleasure and minimise pain"
        • Act Utilitarianism
          • Principle of utility directly applied to each situation
          • Flexible as rules and laws can be broken easily
          • Decision is right or wrong depending on the consequence
        • Hedonic  calculus
          • Duration: How long does it last?
          • Extent: Number of people effected by it
          • Purity: The sensation not being followed by sensations of pain
          • Remoteness: how near is the pleasure and pain?
          • Intensity: the strength of the sensation
          • Chance: the chance it will happen again
          • Certainty it will happen again
        • We should receive the maximum pleasure
        • Hedonistic
          • Pleasure is  pure good and pain is pure evil
          • Pleasure is the ultimate good
        • Humans are motivated by pleasure and pain
          • Humans follow pleasure and try to avoid pain
          • "Nature has placed man kind under two sovereigns; pain and pleasure. they point out what we ought to do and what we shall do"
      • John Stuart Mill
        • Rule Utilitarianism
          • Greatest good for the greatest number
          • Rule takes priority over immediate situation
          • He wished to reformulate the theory
            • concerned that one persons pleasure is completely extinguished if majority gained pleasure from  act
              • Well being of individual is important
            • Not all pleasures are of equal value
              • Lower pleasures
                • Lower qualities associated with animals. eg, drinking, eating, sleeping, sex
                • they are physical pleasures. less intellectual
                • Those who lack intelligence and character choose bodily pleasures
              • Higher pleasures
                • only humans can experience this. eg poetry, reading, classical music
                • Preferred over quantitative pleasures
                • "humans faculties more elevated that animal appetites, once conscience of them, they dont regard anything as pleasure that doesnt involve them"
                  • "it is better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied, better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"
            • Self sacrifice is nessecary if it achieves GGFTGN
              • Individual still isn't considered
                • "It is not the agents own happiness but the greatest amount of happiness together"
        • Principle of Utility
          • Whether an act is right or wrong depending on its usefulness
            • Usefulness of the act depending on  the amount of happiness produced by an action
        • An act is right or wrong depending on its consequences
        • Every person has the ability to make their own choices

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