Utilitarianism

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  • Created by: Phoebe
  • Created on: 05-05-13 21:51
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  • Utilitarianism
    • "The greatest good of the greatest number" - Bernbard Fabian
    • Jeremy Bentham 18th/19th century
      • Non-Thiest
      • Humans fundamentally prefer Pleasure to Pain and would never choose Pain over Pleasure
      • "Two sovereign masters Pain and Pleasure" - An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation
      • Hedonic Calculus
        • Basic test to calculate the maximification of pleasure and minimization of pain
    • Besed on Nature law of Pain and Pleasure
      • Utility= Usefulness
        • maximification of happiness/pleasure
    • John Stuart Mill 19th century
      • Influenced by Bentham
      • The aggregate of individual happiness  as decisions made by the majority (Bentham) suppresseses minorities
        • The Golden Rule
      • Mill was an MP compared Bentham to Judge and Mill to Legislator
      • Benthams simplistic views of human happiness to simple
        • Actions dont make people happy - right conditions aswell
      • Mill 3 basic princaples for perfect conditions for happiness
        • Limit to power of society
        • Freedom of thought and speech
        • Right to  be an individual as long as no harm caused to others
      • Human rights and universal suffrage
      • Higher and Lower pleasures
        • Higher is proggessive (education) lower is physical (drinking)
        • "worthy only of swine" Utilitarianism
          • "it is better to be a human unsatissfied than a pig satissfied"
    • Act Utilitarianism
      • extreme utilitarianism
      • Action is right if - promotos happiness - causes pleasure and absensce of pain - utility is greater than nought - maximizes utility compared to alternatives
      • Henry Sidgwick 19th century
      • Purely hedonistic
      • What is good and what is right
      • Consequetional
        • Subject and objective right acts
      • Princaple of Justice
      • Rule of thumb
      • Bentham
    • Rule Utilitarianism
      • Opposite of Act Utilitarianism
      • Moral laws must be obeyed
      • Mill
    • Preference Utilitarianism
      • Peter Singer 20th century
      • Trade Off for general good
      • Equality

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