Utilitarianism 

An overview of Peter Singerm Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill utilitarianism  theories. Covering strenghts and weaknesses of each ones theory and a few quotes per philospher. 

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Yamanam
  • Created on: 19-04-13 19:40
View mindmap
  • Utilitarianism
    • John Stuart Mill
      • higher and lower pleasures
        • Higher pleasures make us happy because they are progressive
          • Piano
          • Poerty
          • Philosophical thoughts
        • Lower pleasures make us happy but do not  give us progression
          • Food
          • Sex
          • Drinking
        • Doesn't understand how can pleasures can be equal
      • Quotes
        • "It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"
          • higher and lower pleasures
            • Higher pleasures make us happy because they are progressive
              • Piano
              • Poerty
              • Philosophical thoughts
            • Lower pleasures make us happy but do not  give us progression
              • Food
              • Sex
              • Drinking
            • Doesn't understand how can pleasures can be equal
        • The only freedom which deserves the name is that of pursuing our own good in our own way, so long as we do not attempt to deprive others of theirs, or impede their efforts to obtain it
      • Liberty
        • The most important condition for happiness
        • He comprised three elements.
          • A limit to the power of  society over an individual
            • Dictatorship is wrong by Mill's standards
          • Freedom of thought and speech
          • The right be an individual
            • They should be free do  as they please
              • As long as it does not cause harm to others
      • Strengths
        • Takes the minorities into consideration
        • Emphasis on happiness rather than pleasure
        • Emphasis on liberty
      • Weaknesses
        • Goes against his  desire for equality by calling lower pleasures "worthy only of swine"
        • Some argue that we can make progress with lower pleasures too
        • His liberty rule can only be taken to a certin extent - we are never truly free
        • Some argue that "higher and lower  pleasure" are meaningless.
        • Often viewed as optimistic about human nature
          • Dawkins argues  human behavior is often  heavily determined by genes.
      • Principle of universalizability
        • What is good for one person should be good for all
        • Equality
      • Often regarded as a "rule utilitarianism"
        • Untitled
    • Jeremy Bentham
      • The Utility Principle
        • This is how humans act, but also how humans ought to act
        • Maximisation of pleasure and minimisation of pain
      • The Hedonic Calculus
        • PRICEDF
          • Purity
            • How pure is the sensation?
          • Remotness
            • How soon is the pleasure or pain?
          • Intensity
            • How intense is the pain or pleasure?
          • Certainty
            • How certain is it that pleasure or pain will occur
          • Extent
            • How many are affected by the sensation?
          • Duration
            • How long does the pleasure or pain last?
          • Fecundity
            • What is the chance the pleasure or pain will bring other pleasures or pains?
        • Quantifying morality
      • QUOTES
        • "greatest good for the greatest number
          • The Utility Principle
            • This is how humans act, but also how humans ought to act
            • Maximisation of pleasure and minimisation of pain
        • "Human rights are nonsense on stilts"
        • "The question is not 'Can they reason?' or "cant they read?' but 'can they suffer?'"
        • “The quantity of pleasure being equal, push-pin is as good as poetry.”
        • "Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure."
        • Referred to as "Act Utilitarianism"
        • Weaknesses
          • Views all pleasure as equal
          • Rejects human rights
          • Theory based on nature -could therefore be outdated
          • Commits "naturalistic fallacy"
            • Where just because something acts a certain way, doesn't mean this  is how things ought to be.
          • Requires too much...
            • Knowledge
            • Time
            • Effort
          • Lack of humanity - cold and lacks emotion
          • Hedonistic
            • Only focuses on sensations
        • Pleasure is the one intrinsic good
      • General shizzle
        • Teleological
          • Directed towards a final purpose
        • Consequentialism
          • The consequences determine whether its a good action
      • Peter Singer
        • Preference Utilitarianism
          • Weaknesses
            • You're preferences can't please everyone
            • No concept of love and relationships
            • Humans aren't constantly doing things to please there preferences - it's impossible
            • Preference is often dictated by whats available rather than what we really want
            • How do we distinguish between our manifest preferences and true preferences?
              • Manifest preference = What you happen to prefer  due to immediate needs
              • True preferences = choosing when all facts and evidence is present
          • Strengths
            • Allows for equality because everyones preferences are equl to one another
            • Takes into account the minorities
            • Allows you to consider happiness of all sentinent beings
        • A right action is one that maximizes the preference s that individual human beings make in life.
        • Principle of equal consideration of interests
          • Preference Utilitarianism
            • Weaknesses
              • You're preferences can't please everyone
              • No concept of love and relationships
              • Humans aren't constantly doing things to please there preferences - it's impossible
              • Preference is often dictated by whats available rather than what we really want
              • How do we distinguish between our manifest preferences and true preferences?
                • Manifest preference = What you happen to prefer  due to immediate needs
                • True preferences = choosing when all facts and evidence is present
            • Strengths
              • Allows for equality because everyones preferences are equl to one another
              • Takes into account the minorities
              • Allows you to consider happiness of all sentinent beings
          • Peoples preferences must consider the preferences of others
        • Quotes
          • The notion that human life is sacred just because it is human life is medieval
          • Extreme poverty is not only a condition of unsatisfied material needs. It is often accompanied by a degrading state of powerlessness
          • our preferences cannot count any more than the preferences of others'
    • Peter Singer
      • A right action is one that maximizes the preference s that individual human beings make in life.
      • Principle of equal consideration of interests
        • Peoples preferences must consider the preferences of others
      • Quotes
        • The notion that human life is sacred just because it is human life is medieval
        • Extreme poverty is not only a condition of unsatisfied material needs. It is often accompanied by a degrading state of powerlessness
        • our preferences cannot count any more than the preferences of others'

    Comments

    No comments have yet been made

    Similar Ethics resources:

    See all Ethics resources »See all resources »