Utilitarianism: Compatibility with Religions

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  • Created by: Moldred
  • Created on: 07-04-16 11:03
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  • Utilitarianism: Compatibility with religions.
    • Buddhism
      • 5 Precepts
        • guidelines which Buddhists choose to follow. They're "principles of training" which are undertaken freely and should be put into practice with intelligence and sensitivity.
          • acknowledges that life is complex and does not suggest there is one single course of action that will be right or wrong.
            • work well with Weak Rule Utilitarianism as they can be broken if the need arises.
        • 1. Not to intentionally harm or kill anything.       2. Not to take anything that is not freely given.           3. To control cravings.       4. Not to tell lies.              5. Not to take intoxicating substances.
      • The Four Noble Truths
        • what Buddha realised after he spent time meditating to discover how to end suffering
        • Symptoms: The Nature Of Suffering (Dukkha)- To live is to suffer.
          • Causes/Diagnosis: Suffering's Origin (Tanha)- Suffering is caused by desire.
            • Possibility of Cure/Prognosis: Sufferings Cessation- Suffering can be overcome.
              • Prescription: The Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering- The Eight Noble Path is the Solution of Suffering
                • can be viewed as compatible because they aim to minimalism suffering
                  • however, it does not maximize pleasure
                  • (pleasure can be viewed as the absence of pain)
                    • however, it does not maximize pleasure
      • The Noble Eight fold Path
        • the solution to suffering devised by Buddha. Buddhists are free to choose to follow them.
          • the path as a whole can also be viewed as compatible with Utilitarianism as it aims to end suffering/ minimise pain.
        • Right View: know the truth
        • Right Mindfulness: control your thoughts
        • Right Concentration: practice meditation
        • Right Effort: resist evil
        • Right Livelihood: respect life
        • Right Action: work for the good of others
          • most obviously compatible with Utilitarianism as part of the path as it aims to work for others, which could be seen as linked to creating the greatest good for the greatest number.
        • Right Speech: say nothing that hurts others.
        • Right Intentions: free your mind of evil
    • Christianity
      • The Decalogue
        • The Ten Commandments are a set of absolute rules which were given to Moses by God.
          • They're the foundation of many of our laws and customs, and many Christians still use them.
            • Utilitarianism is relative so would not be compatible with these absolute rules.
              • Absolutism: no rules can be broken no matter the situation- derives from God or internal authority
              • Relativism: rules are either followed or ignored depending on the situation.
      • Natural Law
        • actions are intrinsically wrong or right.
        • there is a natural order within the world that is placed their by God
          • our reason in the world is to figure out the natural order which is in the world.
        • Aquinas believed there are inclinations instilled in us by God and we should use them to achieve the greater good.
          • Through using reason we can discover these laws: these are always true and absolute.
            • 1. The preservation of life.            2. Reproduction  3. Nurture and educate the young       4. Peacefully living in society.         5. Worship God
              • Argued that they have a close link to Strong Rule Utilitarianism if they are rules which are derived from Utilitarian principles.
            • These rules are absolute and not compatible with the relative theory.
      • Self sacrifice and Suffering
        • Jesus gave his life o the cross to ensure that the sins of mankind would be forgiven. He sacrificed his life in payment of the eternal life of mankind.
          • Christian beliefs are compatible with Utilitarianism as Jesus' death brought about the greatest good for the greatest number.
      • The Sanctity of Life
        • life is god given and therefore sacred and should be preserved.
          • Roman Catholicism and The Orthodox Church would most likely hold this rule as absolute, refusing to break the rule in situations such as abortions to save the mothers life.
            • absolutism is not compatible with Utilitarianism.
              • if its intentions are to achieve the greatest good it could be viewd as compatible with Strong Rule Utilitarianism
          • Many Christians could argue it can be broken through the Doctrine of Double effects, or simply that there are situations where one life takes precedence over another.
            • Denominations such as Protestants, Baptists and Methodists would be more accepting to breaking this rule
            • if the intentions of breaking this rule are to bring the greatest good it is compatible with Utilitarianism
      • The Bible
        • a source of authority which can offer guidance in everyday life
          • its not absolute but works to "guide people" so it could be compatible with Weak Rule Utilitarianism.
  • Compatible
    • Not Compatible
      • Key
    • Key

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