Utilitarianism

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  • Created by: Birdy234
  • Created on: 20-05-17 15:00
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  • Utilitarianism
    • Jeremy Bentham
      • The Principle of Utility
        • The rightness or wrongness of an action is based on its usefulness
        • Usefulness based on the amount of pleasure or pain produced
      • Motivation of Humans
        • Avoid Pain
        • Pursue pleasure
      • The Haedonic calculus
        • Distance
        • Repeatability
        • People affected
        • Remoteness
        • Intensity
        • Certainty
        • Extent
      • STRENGTHS
        • Haedonic calculus is easy to follow as a set of rules
        • Humans naturally avoid pain
        • Identifies the seeking of pleasure
        • Makes people look at the consequences of their actions
      • Weaknesses
        • Attempting to quantify the happiness
        • Happiness/ Pleasure is personalised to everyone seperately
        • Concerned only with the consequences of an action
        • Swine Ethic
      • Act utilitarianism
        • Utilitarianism applied to situations individually
        • With the presentation of a dilemma the option of greatest good must be chosen
    • John Mill
      • Higher Pleasures
        • Pleasures of the mind: reading, music and culture
      • Lower Pleasures
        • Pleasures of the body: food, drink, sex
      • Better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied
      • Rule utilitarianism
        • Focuses on general rules that everyone should follow
        • Must follow the rules regardless
    • Peter Singer
      • Preference utilitarianism
      • Utilitarianism where the outcome is what best suits the person involved
      • Take the position of an impartial bistander
    • Negative utilitarianism
      • Minimisation of pain rather than the maximisation of pleasure

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