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  • Utilitarianism
    • Jeremy Bentham
      • Act utilitarianism
        • Reletivistic
          • No universal moral normalities
        • Consequence based
          • The action is judged on the outtcome
        • Teleological
          • The end goal is happiness
      • The hedonic calculus is the way in which we measure happiness
        • Intensity
        • Duration
        • Certainty
        • Propinquity
        • Fecundity
        • Purity
        • Extent
      • The Greatest happiness principle
        • We should aim to achieve 'the greatest happiness for the greatest number'
    • JS Mill
      • Rule utilitarianism
        • Strong rule utilitarianism
          • 'you must never lie'
          • Any rules created by using the principle of utility should never be broken
            • This is because rules are made to create the greatest happiness
        • Weak rule utilitarianism
          • 'It's OK to lie if you're protecting someone's life'
          • Tries to allow for the fact that in extreme cases the rule must be broken to achieve the greatest happinexss
        • By using the GHP you can draw up general rules based on past experience.
          • What general rule will help create the greatest happiness?
      • Higher and Lower pleasures
        • The quality of the consequence of the act is more important than the quantity
        • An improvement of Bentham's GHP as Mill understood that one man's happiness could be overlooked by a large quantity of poor quality happiness
        • Higher pleasures are intellectual pleasures that help develop us humans
        • Lower pleasures are inferior pleasures of the senses
    • Strengths
      • Act Utilitarianism is pragmatic and consequentialist
        • "Consequences have real effects on people and therefore should be the basis of evaluating actions" Sarah K Tyler and Gordon Reid
      • For many people 'happiness' is an important aspect of decision making as it's their main aim in life
        • "If the promotion of happiness and the lessening of pain is what we value then all human actions should have these aims" Patrick J Clarke
      • Act utilitarianism is clear and easy to follow
        • "it is straight forward and based on clear principle" Mel Thompson
    • Weaknessess
      • Relies on human ability to predict consequences
        • "it is often hard to know what consequences are either unforeseen unintended or both" Cain Rolleston
      • It fails to consider that people have certain duties towards another e.g. Mother to daughter
        • "in practice, none of us is wiling to treat all people as equals, for it would require that we abandon our special relationships with friends and family" James Rachels
      • Happiness is subjective, people have different ideas of pleasure
        • "If human beings don't have the same idea of what gives them pain or pleasure, then the premise on which utilitarianism is built is severely weakened" Robert Bowie
    • Religious compatibility
      • It IS NOT compatible with Christianity
        • A Utilitarian's goal is to create happiness yet it's a Christian's goal to fulfil God's wil
        • The 10 commandments are absolute whereas Act Utilitarianism is relativistic
        • Rules are based on human knowledge and past experience- not divine command
      • It IS compatible with Christianity
        • The 'golden rule' Luke 6v31
          • Treat others as you would have them treat you
        • The ten commandments relate to strong rule utilitarianism and create the greatest happiness
        • Utilitarianism states that the ultimate goal is happiness. Christianity aims to make people happy by having a relationship with God
        • Mill's utilitarianism promotes impartiality and selflessness. Utilitarianism wishes happiness for all. This relates to Christian belief
          • Love your neighbour as yourself
  • "It is better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"


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