USSR - Lenin

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  • USSR -    Lenin
    • Marxism - There are six stages to a Marxist Revolution
      • 2 - Imperialism
        • In this stage emperors rule, he owns all land. As it progresses emperor will become threatened and will give lands to create army and a new land-owning aristocracy
      • 1 -   Primitive Communism
        • In this stage everyone works together for the common good, no private properties and no class system. Towards the end the successful hunter-gatherers gain power
      • 3 - Feudalism
        • At this stage land is owned by aristocracy. Peasantry would be exploited. Key resource would be food which the aristocracy would sell and the left over would lead to the development of trade.
      • 4 -  Capitalism
        • In this stage the exploitation of peasantry (Proletariat)  continues and they become politically aware. Meaning that trade unions are created. Towards the end the Proletariat would overthrow the Bourgeoisie.
      • 6 - Communism
        • This stage is Utopia. Everyone works together for the common good. Resources are allocated fairly and there are no classes. This would lead to no states and no borders
      • 5 -   Socialism
        • In this stage the Proletariat rise up against the Bourgeois and create the dictatorship of the Proletariat. The state would take control of industry and allocate resources. The middle class will be re-educated if not will be eliminated
    • Bolshevik Revolution
      • How Lenin planned to adapt Marxism to overcome Russia backwardnes
        • Skip the stage of Capitalism
        • Ignored need for spontaneous revoultion
        • Abandoned the dictatorship of the Proletariat for Dictatorship of  the Party
        • Accepted that the system relied on two classes: Proletariat and Poor Peasants
        • Allowed the Political system to determine the Economic system
      • In 1903 Lenin's desire to have a small revolutionary elite split the party. Which led to a vote
        • Lenin won and took the name Bolsheviks and the party newspaper 'Iska'
        • The others took the name Mensheviks.
        • This led to distrust in the party, which also led to Trotsky's down fall as he was a Menshevik
      • The role of Trotsky in the revolution
        • Trotsky Went across the front line with a printing press and loud speakers with the Bolshevik message of 'peace, land, bread and freedom'
      • How did the Bolsheviks win the Civil War ?
        • BRUTAL DISCIPLINE
          • The Cheka was created in December 1917, this was the first secret police
            • These measures were seen as necessary
          • The Red Army was created with brutal military discipline
            • 48,000 former tsarist officers were recruited and into the red army with their families held hostage
            • If a solider deserted the Lenin approved shooting every tenth man in the unit.
        • In January 1918, elections were held for the new Russian Parliament
          • Lenin lost, so he sent Red Army and dissolved the assembly
            • In March 1918 the last no Bolshevik left the government
        • ECONOMIC POLICY
          • NEP (New Economic Policy)
            • It allowed private ownership with less than ten employees and the state would only take a small percentage of the grain
              • Lenin saw this as a temporary measure as it went against Marxism
                • This restored economic stability but at the expense of communism
          • War Communism
            • This policy involved the state taking control of all industry, as well as seizing peasants's surplus grain
              • But were there was no surplus grain the state would take the grain that would feed the peasants
                • This lead to a famine that killed an estimated 5 million people
                  • War Communism ended in February 1921 and replaced by NEP
        • The win in the Civil War was no small part due to the ever increasing control that state exercised over the Soviet people
    • LEAPS
      • LEADERSHIP                 -  Collective Leadership    - Lenin being the 'first among equals'
      • POLITICAL   - Two              classes     - Dictatorship  of the Party
      • SOCIETY   - Better         rights for     Women        - Birth        Control
      • ARMY        - Red Army - Cheka
      • ECONOMY  - War communism  - NEP
    • Feature of Totalitarian Regimes
      • Official Ideology
      • One-party State
      • Mass Communication
      • Terror
      • Control over the Economy
      • Cult of Personality
  • The Red Army was created with brutal military discipline
    • 48,000 former tsarist officers were recruited and into the red army with their families held hostage
    • If a solider deserted the Lenin approved shooting every tenth man in the unit.
  • 5 -   Socialism
    • In this stage the Proletariat rise up against the Bourgeois and create the dictatorship of the Proletariat. The state would take control of industry and allocate resources. The middle class will be re-educated if not will be eliminated

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