USA constituion

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  • USA Constitution
    • Principles
      • Sovereign
      • Representatvie goverment
      • Seperation of powers
      • Limited government
      • Federalism
    • Amendment
      • Formal
        • 2/3 of each house
          • 3/4 of states
          • 22nd amentment
        • National convention
          • 2/3 states
          • Never been successful
        • About 7yrs
      • Informal
        • Supreme court interpriation
          • e.g. Roe V Wade 1973
        • Convention
          • e.g. EXOP & the cabinet
      • Few amendments because...
        • Deliberately difficult to amend
        • Constitution is Vague & Specific
        • Revered
        • Supreme Court interprets it
    • Strengths
      • Constitution is soverign
      • Major principles entrenched
      • Separation of powers, Checks & balances
      • Protects individual liberties
      • Flexible
      • Safeguarded by Supreme Court
      • Revered by citizens
    • Criticisms
      • Invitation to strugle
      • Leads to gridlock
        • "The opposite of progress is Congress"
      • Leads to weak govn't
      • Difficult to amend
      • Unelected judges have too much power
      • Presidential power not always constrained
    • Federalism
      • Implied but not mentioned in constitution
      • A system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units
      • Growing of federal govn't due to...
        • Growing poputlation
        • Industrialisation
        • New Deal
        • Constitutional Amendments
          • e.g. 16th
        • Supreme Court decision
        • Improvements in communication
        • Foreign policy post WW2
      • Dual Federalism
        • Cooperative federalism
          • Creative Federalism
            • New Federalism
              • Assertive federalism?
                • New phase emerging?
                • Clinton
                  • Foreign & Economic policy
                • G.W. Bush
                  • Homeland security/Partiot act & No child left behind
                • Obama
                  • Obamacare & executive orders e.g. fast track illegal immigrents
              • 1970s-Present
                • Regan & Nixon onwards
              • "On your own federalism"
              • Fed govn't too big
                • Roll back the frontiers of the state
            • Late 60s & 70s
            • "Picket fence federalism"
            • Money given for specific things
              • Housing, transport, affirmative action
          • "Marble cake"
          • 1930s-60s
          • Federal govn't fund states under new deal
            • To tackle poverty, health & education
        • "Layer cake"
        • 1787-1930s
        • Rights of states protected

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