USA: Racism, Separation + Integration

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  • Racism, Separation + Integration
    • Racism in the South
      • Jim Crow laws - 'separate but equal'
        • enforced segregation - policy of making blacks use different + worst facilities
      • states gave black schools less money = hard to pay for books + repairs
      • voting
        • white employers stopped black people from registering to vote, by threatening their job or by violence
        • laws in some states required voters to be literate - so purposely made the tests harder to pass for black voters - 'legally' disqualifying them
    • Racism in the North
      • no segregation laws but black people often lived in worst off neighbourhoods
        • local schools + facilities were often all black anyways
      • more likely to get an education that went on for longer
      • many southerners thought their contribution to the forces + war work would change racism, but it didn't
        • so they moved to the North
          • 1910 population in Harlem, NY of blacks was 10 %, by 1930 it was 70%
    • Violence Against Black Americans
      • Lynchings
        • white mobs kill black people as they believe they have committed a crime
        • sometimes mobs hauled their targets from jail, even if they weren't arrested
        • lynch mobs would beat or torture targets till death then hang them on trees
        • it was easier to get away with in the south as even though it was illegal court rooms were biased
        • aggressive demonstration of power + authority + superiority
        • women were involved - shows the extet of attitudes + the desire to humiliate = dehumanise them as entertainment
      • Ku Klux Klan
        • set up 1st by group of soldiers from South in 1865, after they lost the civil war - want to stop blacks from gaining real freedom - suppressed in 1870's
        • 1915 - William Simmons re - formed it as a terrorist organisation but expanded its targets
        • wanted white Anglo-Saxon protestant nation
        • against Jewish, immigrants, Catholics and left wings
        • wore white robes + hoods to keep identity secret as it included police, law court + members of gov = harder for anyone they persecuted to become charged
        • shows the widespread - enough to make organisation
        • determined to have patriotic society - includes justice system
    • Resistance to Racism
      • Homer Plessy
        • insisted it was a violation of his rights under the constitution
        • challenged Louisiana railroad's after forcing him to sit in a black only carriage (1/8 th black ancestry)
        • Justice system agreed that 'separate but equal' was legal
      • Passive
        • songs: strange fruits - highlights effects of segregation laws - 'smell of burning flesh', 'bitter crop'
        • poems: 'they send me to eat in the kitchen when company comes' - Langston Hughes
    • W.E.B. Du Bois (1868 - 1963)
      • helped to set up Niagara Movement + National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP)
      • set  up + edited a monthly magazine for the NAACP - Crisis
      • born in North + took degrees at Nashville and Harvard before teaching at Atlanta Uni
      • 1909 - left uni to work for NAACP (publicity + research) - worked for INTERGRATION + right of black Americans
      • 1961 - became communist + moved to Ghana
    • Marcus Garvey (1887 - 1940)
      • born in Jamaica + studied in England +  returned to Jamaica in 1914 to set up Universal ***** Improvement Association (UNIA)
      • moved to USA in 1916
      • SEPARIST and believed black people would always feel inferior in a society where whites ran all aspects of life
      • set up an African Orthodox Church (Christian church with black images of God)
      • used donations to help black people set up their own businesses in black communities
      • began a Back to Africa campaign with Liberia as a country to settle in
        • 1919 - set up Black star line to take people there, funded with $10,000 collected from follower
          • ships took several trips to Liberia but as they were in bad condition the company shut down in 1922
      • 1923 - arrested for fraud + deported to Jamaica in 1927
    • Garvey + Du Bois
      • at first Du Bois was supportive of Garvey ideas as while he believed in integration he believed that people should be allowed to choose separation
      • 1921 - he wrote in Crisis that Garvey was an inspiring leader with some good ideas but that he should be careful how he put them into practice
      • when Garvey was accused of fraud he withdrew his support


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