Urogenital system

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  • Created by: ez
  • Created on: 03-11-13 22:22
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  • Urogenital system
    • Urinary system
      • Kidneys filter blood
        • Fibrous capsule
        • Cortex
          • Grainy appearance due to corpuscles
            • Renal corpuscle
              • Glomerulus
              • Bowman's capsule
                • Site of ultrafiltration
                  • Glomerulus
        • Medulla
        • Filtration occurs in nephrons
          • Found in renal pyramids, extend from cortex to medulla
            • Medulla
            • Cortex
              • Grainy appearance due to corpuscles
                • Renal corpuscle
                  • Bowman's capsule
                    • Site of ultrafiltration
              • Proximal convoluted tubule
                • Reabsorption of water and solutes (e.g. glucose
                • Loop of Henle
                  • Maintains medullary concentration gradient
              • Loop of Henle
                • Maintains medullary concentration gradient
              • Distal convoluted tubule
                • Reabsorption of ions
          • Ureter
            • Bladder stores urine
              • Transitional epithelium
              • Layer of smooth muscle to assist urination
              • Controlled by parasympathetic nervous system
              • Ureters enter at the trigone region
            • Tubule from kidneys to bladder
            • Enters bladder at oblique angle to prevent backflow
            • Transitional epithelium
        • Bladder stores urine
          • Layer of smooth muscle to assist urination
          • Controlled by parasympathetic nervous system
          • Ureters enter at the trigone region
        • Ureter
          • Tubule from kidneys to bladder
          • Enters bladder at oblique angle to prevent backflow
        • Urethra conveys urine from bladder to outside the body
          • Short in females
      • Female reproductive system
        • Ovaries are where oocytes and some hormones are produced
          • Structure
            • Outer epithelium
            • Cortex containing follicles
            • Inner medullary region
          • Hormones
            • Oestrogen produced by follicles
              • Cortex containing follicles
              • Stimulates luteinizing hormone
            • Progesterone produced by corpus luteum
              • Maintains thickened endrometrium for implantation
        • Fibriae lead to uterine horn, leads to uterus, leads to cervix to vagina to vestibule to vulva
          • External urethral orifice between vagina and vestibule
            • Short in females
          • Uterus has layers of smooth muscle for parturition
            • Stimulated by oxytocin
          • Cervix acts as sphincter, keeping uterus closed except during copulation and parturition
      • Male reproductive system
        • Penis
          • Corpus cavernosum forms dorsal side
            • Tissue full of many pockets (caverns)
              • Erectile tissue
          • Corpus spongiosum surrounds urethra
            • Urethra divided into pelvic and penile urethra
          • Tunica albuginea surrounds the two tissues
        • Testes
          • Testes hang outside body in scrotum
            • Spermatogenesis occurs best below body temperature
          • Full of convoluted seminiferous tubules
            • Site of spermatogenesis
            • Epithelium has Sertoli ('nurse') cells
          • Interstitial Leydig cells
            • Produce testosterone
          • Seminiferous tubules drain into epididymis
            • Epididymis connects to vas deferens
        • Accessory glands
          • Ampullary glands
          • Vesicular glands
          • Prostate gland
          • Bulbourethral glands
            • Very large in boars
    • Found in renal pyramids, extend from cortex to medulla
      • Proximal convoluted tubule
        • Reabsorption of water and solutes (e.g. glucose
      • Distal convoluted tubule
        • Reabsorption of ions

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