B3 Urinary system, Kidney structure & Osmoregulation

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  • Urinary system, Kidney Structure & Osmoregulation
    • Urinary system
      • Its job is to filter and clean the blood
      • Kidneys
      • Renal vein and artery
      • Ureter (transports urine to bladder)
      • Uretha
      • Bladder
    • Kidney Structure
      • Excretion Organs
      • 1. Removal of urea
      • 2. Adjustment of ion levels
      • 3. Adjustment of water content
      • Nephrons
        • Found in the kidney
        • Filtration units
          • Ultrafiltration
            • 1. High pressure is built up which squeezes water, urea, ions and glucose out of the blood into the bowman's capsule.
            • 2. The glomerulus and the bowman's capsule act like filters. Big molecules like proteins and blood cells are not squeezed out.
          • Reabsorption
            • Useful substances are reabsorbed
            • 1. Glucose is selectively restored
            • 2. Sufficient water is reabsorbed according to the level of ADH
        • Filter blood and produce urine
        • 1. Remove all urea from blood
        • 2. Keep all glucose in the blood
        • 3. Remove some water
    • Osmoregulation
      • Controlled by negative feeback
      • HYDRATED
        • Water gain
          • Brain detects water gain
            • Pituitary gland releases less ADH
              • Lack of ADH means kidney absorbs less water
                • HYDRATED
                  • Water gain
                    • Brain detects water gain
                      • Pituitary gland releases less ADH
                        • Lack of ADH means kidney absorbs less water
                    • Water loss
                      • Brains detects water loss
                        • Pituitary gland releases more ADH
                          • ADH makes kidney absorb more water
            • Water loss
              • Brains detects water loss
                • Pituitary gland releases more ADH
                  • ADH makes kidney absorb more water
          • Dialysis
            • Dialysis machine can be used to filter blood
            • Need to be connected to the machine several hours a week to keep urea levels in the blood from rising
            • Waste products diffuse out into the dialysis fluid
          • Transplant
            • Save lives
            • Better than a machine
            • Needs to have matching tissues
            • Kidney can be rejected
              • Drugs are constantly used to help prevent rejection

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