Urbanisation case studies

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  • Urbanisation
    • Water pollution (Mumbai)
      • About the area: Population density. Lots of shanty towns. Impermeable area. Water pollution in cities come from sewage, dumped waste from homes and chemical pollution by industries. Effects of water pollution: 5 out of 10 people had someone in their family that was ill last year. 53% of deaths were water borne diseases.
        • Causes of floods in Mumbai: solid waste blocks drains. Effects: almost a quarter of Mumbai flooded. Airport shut down. 406 people died.$100 million to repair. Responses: they decided to dredge the river channel to make it deeper and wider so it can hold more water.
          • Solutions: an educational programme to inform people about how to reduce pollution and how to detect polluted water-taste, colour, odour. Build incinerators to deal with the waste.
    • Vision Mumbai
      • About Dharavi: largest slum in the world. Founded in 1882. Total population is between 300,000 to 1 million.
        • Vision Mumbai: this is a scheme run by the Mumbai authorities, they are focusing on a slum call Dharavi. Top-down scheme. Part of vision Mumbai is to destroy houses in the slums so they can build new house and apartments.
          • Impacts: residents will have no where to live while the houses are being built. Vision Mumbai are building 1.1 million homes, this should reduce the number of people living in the slums by 90%. Improve the health care, water supply and sewage systems. Even though houses are low-cost, some people can not afford it.
    • Self help scheme
      • Urbanisation in Botswana is one of the fastest rates of urbanisation in the world. This created problems of unemployment and squatter development.
      • Gaborone- capital of Botswana. It has over 400,000 inhabitants and is one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Old Naledi is a large squatter settlement in Gaborone. By 1971, over 6000 people lived there illegally.
      • Self help scheme- bottom-up scheme. Stage 1- provide basic services (water). Land is given to families to build homes. Stage 2: improve water supply. Have rubbish collection points. Build schools shops and community facilities. Stage 3: sanitation for every home. Water and a few hours of electricity. Local businesses are built.
    • City challange
      • About London Docklands: it is an example of an urban development corporations (UDCs). It was a major port before the war but became damaged. In 1980's London Dockland development corporation (LDDC) was set up.
      • Impacts: Improved living conditions. 22,000 new homes were built. New shopping mall was built. Number of jobs increased from 28,000 to 90,000. More transport links like DLR (Dockland light railway a train with no driver).
        • Successes- More trade and cheaper rents for larger companies. Improved accessibility. Criticisms- Did not benefit the local people. Locals were unable to afford housing. New jobs were not suitable for the skills of old dockworkers.
    • Sustainable cities
      • About Curitiba: 3 million people. 99% of the people are happy with the city. there is a good quality of life. Public transport- roads have 3 lanes. 2500 people were transported a day, now over 1 million are. The bus lane is 200 times less expensive that the subway. Parks- the government turn unusable land into parks. It is all natural.
        • There are some slums. The government gives the residents food for the rubbish they collect. Residents in the slums learn new skills to make up the work force to build houses for themselves.
      • In 1970's, Jamie Lerner became mayor. He prioritised people ahead of cars. Bus rapid transport system- BRT saves 27 million litres of fuel annually. 30% less fuel per person. Open space- interconnected parkland. Allow rivers to flood naturally without damaging surrounding areas. Sheep are used to cut the grass.
        • Waste collection- 5kg of waste=1kg of fruit and veg. Food is grown by local farmers- providing jobs. 70% of waste is recycled. Children recycle in exchange for theatre tickets. Slum clearance- slums are knocked down and residents are being moved to newer houses in other areas of the city. They are provided with water, electricity and cheap mortgages. Homes are built by the residents.


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