Geography - Urbanisation and Rio

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  • Urbanisation
    • Reasons
      • Rural-urban migration
        • Push
          • Less job opportunities
          • Less facilities and services
          • Poorer education
          • Limited healthcare - lower life expectancy
          • Less transport links
          • Lower quality housing
          • The Green Revolution reduced farm work in rural areas as more machinery is now used. Only large farms can afford required chemicals and machinery. Many smaller farms cannot compete and have sold up. Farm jobs now harder to find and poorly paid
          • Educational and health standards much lower in rural areas, as teachers and doctors want to work in towns with bettter living conditions
          • Young people see farming as hard work with long hours, low pay and few positive prospects for the future.
        • Pull
          • More and better quality facilities and services
          • More job opportunities - better paid, highly skilled
          • Better transport links
          • Better education
          • Better housing
          • Better healthcare - higher life expectancy
          • Many migrants already know people who have moved into the city
          • Rio is the cultural capital of Brazil
          • Job prospects - higher paid then farm work
          • Good schools and universities as well as decent hospitals and dentists
          • Home is more likely to have water, electricity and sewage services
          • Investment by municipality government in public works offers potential employment
      • Natural increase
        • (Birth rate - death rate) / 10
    • Variations across the world
      • Developed world urbanised first (then slowed down and plateaued in many cases
        • People moved to cities to work in factories during industrial revolution
          • While the developing world still relied on primary industries (e.g. agriculture)
            • Global shift means manufacturing has moved to poorer countries
              • So now their populations are moving to cities to look for work - happening at a rapid pace
                • Can cause problems if growIn population cannot be accommodated quickly enough
                  • Increased squatter settlements
      • Developing world urbanised later but is now doing so at a faster pace
    • Majority of megacities in Asia and Eastern world

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