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  • Urbanisation
    • Urbanisation - process which increasing % of country pop come to live in town.
      • Mumbai
        • Mega city/ India's financial centre/culture(bollywood)
        • 5.9m to 12.5  40 years (11).. >half in poverty
        • Living cramped/poorly built/sewage risk health IMR 40/1000/demand for water/congestion/pollution
          • 2004-redevelopment project clear slums create independent townships -new apartments.sewage system/hospitals/schools/ (worried destroy livelihoods)
            • MANAGE-1995 slum sanitation program -330 communal toilets/compulsory rainwater collection on houses/alternative transport/upgrade public transport (2021).
      • Causes
        • Natural increase
        • rural-urban migration
        • push&pull factors
    • Counter-urbanisation-- movement away inner urban area to new towns beyond city limits
      • Causes
        • demand housing/better transport/green space/work home
      • Effects
        • Loss greenfield sites,loss culture/congestion/change in buildings/ghost villages/conflict
    • Suburb - residential area within/just outside boundary of city
    • Re-Urbanisation-- development activities to increase pop density within city.
      • Causes
        • de-industrialization (Olympic park)/Brownfield sites/public&private investment/24/7 city.
      • Effects
        • Rejuvenation/increase pop density/increase council spending power/new houses/prices rise/conflict/expense/old residents lose jobs
      • London Docklands
        • 19/20th globally important. 1960's decline because of changes shipping industry (couldn't cope) 1980's derelict 150K lost jobs 20% housing not suitable = LDDC 1981
          • Enterprise zone 10 years/ 2700 businesses trading £7.7b 85000 jobs
          • 24K homes built/Railway 1987 less 20 minutes into London center/ sailing water sports/improved schools/environment refurbished/spaces created.
            • =re-urbanization since 1980 population doubled.
              • Conflict with residents/ original residents not qualified ,LDDC favoured luxury
          • MANAGE-- 40% new houses affordable for residents/It center £1.5m train 16-18
    • Suburbanisation - outward growth of towns engulf surrounding villages
      • Surbiton
        • causes
          • poor housing/deindustrialisation/unemployment/slum clearance
          • relaxing/better transport/cheaper/more jobs/spacious&green
        • Effects
          • abandoned buildings/lower life standard.leaves poor/commuters increase congestion
          • new houses kill wildlife/increase run-off/increases pollution/economy increases wealth
        • 141000 - 10000 40 years (11), closer to london,quality housing,shops,parks,school
          • increased fares to London, leads to pollution of driving,house prices increase 2012 £406k uk £226K =conomic segregation
        • MANAGE-- Improvement strategy 09,widening roads,new roads set deliver times creating parking/neighborhood committee local decisions/reclassify to zone 5 thus cheaper/secure bike storage,pedestrianize.
    • Urban sprawl - unplanned/uncontrolled expansion of urban area into countryside


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